Clinical and epidemiologic characterization of photosensitivity in HIV-positive individuals
Article first published online: 6 JUL 2004
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Volume 20, Issue 4, pages 175–183, August 2004
How to Cite
Bilu, D., Mamelak, A. J., Nguyen, R. H.-N., Queiroz, P. C., Kowalski, J., Morison, W. L. and Martins, C. R. (2004), Clinical and epidemiologic characterization of photosensitivity in HIV-positive individuals. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 20: 175–183. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0781.2004.00101.x
- Issue published online: 6 JUL 2004
- Article first published online: 6 JUL 2004
- Accepted for publication 25 March 2004
Background: An increased prevalence and severity of cutaneous photosensitivity has been recognized in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, this disorder remains poorly characterized in terms of its epidemiology, predisposing factors, clinical, and environmental associations.
Methods: To define the risk factors associated with the presence of photosensitivity among HIV-positive individuals, a cross-sectional study of 631 primary patient visits to an urban HIV Dermatology clinic between January 1997 and August 2001, inclusive, was conducted. A multivariate model was fit to estimate adjusted odds ratios for risk factors associated with photosensitivity diagnosis. Subsequently, a case-series of the patients with photosensitivity was reported.
Results: The overall prevalence of photosensitivity was 5.4%, while African-Americans (AA) exhibited a prevalence of 7.3%. In the multivariate model, using highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.13, 7.03) and being AA (OR=6.68, 95% CI: 1.56, 28.65) significantly increased the odds of photosensitivity. Patients with photosensitivity were more likely to present during periods of higher ultraviolet (UV) index (P=0.08). Two distinct clinical morphologies were noted: lichenoid and non-lichenoid, eczematous. Sub-morphologies in the non-lichenoid group were suggestive of differences in immunologic profile and estimated UV exposure.
Conclusion: Photosensitivity associated with HIV infection is an increasingly recognized dermatologic condition with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. AA ethnicity and HAART were independent indicators for the diagnosis of photosensitivity, whereas CD4+ and UV exposure had non-significant associations. The subtleties in these and other clinical variables may directly aid in the recognition and diagnosis of this poorly characterized disorder.