• persistent pigment darkening method;
  • reproducibility

Background/Purpose: The aims of the present studies were to check that persistent pigment darkening (PPD) method can produce accurate and reproducible results for high UVA protection factors (UVAPF) and to provide data on the variability between laboratories and on the influence of skin types.

Methods: The Japanese Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) PPD method was used to determine the UVAPF in different laboratories of different sunscreen formulations with increasing UVAPF. Two formulations were tested at seven independent laboratories and five products within two laboratories. The influence of skin types on the UVAPF of two products was tested within one laboratory on two panels of volunteers. All laboratories complied with the JCIA method specifications.

Results: Reproducible results have been obtained between the different labs and a low and satisfactory variability was achieved with a panel size of 10 subjects. Furthermore, skin type was demonstrated to have no influence within the defined selection criteria.

Conclusions: From this multiple center testing, the PPD method has been shown to be appropriate for testing sunscreen formulations with UVAPFs above 20. It is reasonable to expect that test results will be consistent if an identical protocol is used between laboratories.