Differentiation of HaCaT cell and melanocyte from their malignant counterparts using micro-Raman spectroscopy guided by confocal imaging

Authors

  • Hequn Wang,

    1. Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • Tsung-Hua Tsai,

    1. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Department of Dermatology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital and General Education Center, Oriental Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Jianhua Zhao,

    1. Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • Anthony M. D. Lee,

    1. Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • Blanche Ka Ki Lo,

    1. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • Mei Yu,

    1. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • Harvey Lui,

    1. Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • David I. McLean,

    1. Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • Haishan Zeng

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory for Advanced Medical Photonics, Photomedicine Institute, Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    • Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • Conflicts of interest:

    None declared.

Correspondence:

Dr Haishan Zeng, PhD, Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1L3.

Tel: +1 604 675 8083

Fax: +1 604 675 8099

e-mail: hzeng@bccrc.ca

Summary

Background

Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in humans. Current techniques for identifying normal and neoplastic tissues are either destructive or not sensitive and specific enough. Raman spectroscopy and confocal imaging may obviate many limitations of existing methods by providing noninvasive, high-resolution, and real-time morphological and biochemical analysis of living tissues and cells.

Methods

We conducted micro-Raman spectroscopy studies on HaCaT cells, melanocytes (MC) and their malignant counterparts squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma (MM) cells, respectively. Reflectance confocal imaging is used as guidance for the spectral measurements.

Results

Significant differences were found between the spectra of HaCaT cells and SCC cells, MC cells and MM cells, as well as all normal cells (HaCaT and MC) and all tumor cells (SCC and MM). Approximately 90% sensitivity and specificity was achieved for all the separations that we performed.

Conclusion

Our results demonstrated the robust capability of confocal Raman spectroscopy in separating different cell lines. The acquired Raman spectra of major types of skin cells and their malignant counterparts will be useful for the interpretation of Raman spectra from in vivo skin. We believe it will eventually help diagnosis of skin cancer and other skin disease in clinical dermatology.

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