Rat pinealocytes were found to contain mitochondria in three configurational states and they were calculated during their maximum (11:00) and minimum (23:00) serotonin content under various conditions of lighting (LD 12:12 and D 24). Their proportions were found to change in the circadian rhythm. Analysis of these results indicated the existence of correlation between pinealocyte bioenergetics and melatonin biosynthesis and its lack in relation to serotonin. Cell groupings with mitochondria in the same configurational state were observed, which suggests the existence of functionally differentiated zones within the pineal gland. In this context, the biochemically demonstrated circadian rhythm in the pineal gland secretion results from the synchronization at the organ level arising from the resultant function of individual pinealocytes.