From vineyard to glass: agrochemicals enhance the melatonin and total polyphenol contents and antiradical activity of red wines

Authors

  • Sara Vitalini,

    1. Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
    2. Dipartimento di Biologia, Orto Botanico ‘G. E. Ghirardi’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Toscolano Maderno, Brescia, Italy
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  • Claudio Gardana,

    1. Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Milano, DiSTAM – Sezione di Nutrizione, Milano, Italy
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  • Alessandro Zanzotto,

    1. Centro di Ricerca per la Viticoltura, CRA, Conegliano Veneto, Treviso, Italy
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  • Gelsomina Fico,

    1. Dipartimento di Biologia, Orto Botanico ‘G. E. Ghirardi’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Toscolano Maderno, Brescia, Italy
    2. Dipartimento di Biologia, Facoltà di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
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  • Franco Faoro,

    1. Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
    2. Dipartimento Agroalimentare, Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, CNR, Sezione di Milano, Milano, Italy
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  • Paolo Simonetti,

    1. Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Milano, DiSTAM – Sezione di Nutrizione, Milano, Italy
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  • Marcello Iriti

    1. Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
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Address reprint requests to Marcello Iriti, Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 2, I-20133, Milano, Italy. E-mail: marcello.iriti@unimi.it

Abstract

Abstract:  Resistance inducers are a class of agrochemicals, including benzothiadiazole and chitosan, which activate the plant own defence mechanisms. In this work, open-field treatments with plant activators were performed on two red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties cultivated in different localities, Groppello (Brescia, Lombardia, Italy) and Merlot (Treviso, Veneto, Italy). Treatments were carried out every 10 days until the véraison and, after harvesting, experimental wines (microvinificates) were prepared. In general, both melatonin and total polyphenol content, determined by mass spectrometry and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, respectively, were higher in wines produced from grapes treated with resistance inducers than in those obtained from untreated control and conventional fungicide-treated grapes. Accordingly, antiradical power of wines derived from plant activator-treated grapes, measured by both DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and the ABTS [(2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical–scavenging assay, was higher than in their counterparts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of agrochemicals on the melatonin content of red wine.

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