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Effects of resistance training on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and biomechanical and physical properties of bone in ovariectomized and intact rats


Corresponding author: Gilberto Eiji Shiguemoto, Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Rua Bernardino Fernandes Nunes, 1707 – Casa 21 – Condomínio Dona Eugênia, Parque Delta, São Carlos, CEP 13.566-490, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Tel: +55 16 3361-6439, Fax: +55 3351-8386/9607-4406, E-mail:


The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of resistance training on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and bone biomechanical properties in ovariectomized and intact rats. Forty-eight female rats were divided into two distinct groups, ovariectomized (OVX) and intact (Int), which were subdivided into three similar subgroups: sedentary, acute exercise and chronic exercise. Rats performed a resistance training for 12 weeks in which animals climbed a vertical ladder of 1.1 m with weights attached to their tails. Sessions were performed with an interval of 3, 4–9 and 8–12 days scaled dynamic movements of climbing. Biomechanical and physical analyses were performed using a universal testing machine, and MMP-2 activity analysis by zymography. Bone density (BD), mineral density (MD), maximum load and fracture load was reduced in sedentary and acute exercise OVX groups compared with the sedentary intact group (P<0.05); in contrast, chronically trained groups (OVX and Int) showed a significant increase in BD, MD and fracture load compared with all the other groups. MMP-2 activity in chronically trained groups also showed a significant increase, while the sedentary OVX group showed a decrease in MMP-2 activity compared with the intact sedentary group (P<0.05). Our results suggest that the resistance training proposed in our work was efficient in reverting the deleterious effects of ovariectomy on bone tissue, and also produced modeling effects in intact rats. On the other hand, ovariectomy reduced the activity of MMP-2 and produced deleterious effects on bone tissue, mimicking menopause intrinsically.