Mitochondrial nutrients stimulate performance and mitochondrial biogenesis in exhaustively exercised rats

Authors

  • M. Sun,

    1. Key Laboratory of General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai, China
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    • *Contributed equally.

  • F. Qian,

    1. Key Laboratory of General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai, China
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    • *Contributed equally.

  • W. Shen,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
    2. Institute for Nutritional Science, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
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  • C. Tian,

    1. Institute for Nutritional Science, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
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  • J. Hao,

    1. Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
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  • L. Sun,

    1. College of Sports and Health, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China
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  • J. Liu

    1. The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an, China
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Corresponding author: Jiankang Liu, PhD, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Life Science and Technology, 28 Xian-ning West Road, 710049 Xi'an, China. Tel: +86 29 82664232, Fax: +86 29 82665849, E-mail: j.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a combination of nutrients on physical performance, oxidative stress and mitochondrial biogenesis in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise. Rats were divided into sedentary control (SC), exhaustive exercise (EC) and exhaustive exercise with nutrient supplementation (EN). The nutrients include (mg/kg/day): R-α-lipoic acid 50, acetyl-l-carnitine 100, biotin 0.1, nicotinamide 15, riboflavin 6, pyridoxine 6, creatine 50, CoQ10 5, resveratrol 5 and taurine 100. Examination of running distances over the 4-week period revealed that EN rats ran significantly longer throughout the entire duration of the exhaustive exercise period compared with the EC rats. Nutrient supplementation significantly inhibited the increase in activities of alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, reversed increases in malondialdehyde, inhibited decreases in glutathione S-transferase and total antioxidant capacity in plasma, and suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in splenic lymphocytes. Nutrient supplementation increased the protein expression of mitochondrial complexes I, II and III, mtDNA number and transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion in skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that mitochondrial nutrient supplementation can reduce exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, thus leading to enhancement of physical performance and of fatigue recovery.

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