Force interaction and 3D pole movement in double poling


  • T. Stöggl,

    1. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
    2. Christian Doppler Laboratory “Biomechanics in Skiing”, Salzburg, Austria
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  • H.-C. Holmberg

    1. Department of Health Sciences, Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden
    2. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden
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Corresponding author: Thomas Stöggl, Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Rifer Schlossallee 49, 5400 Hallein/Rif, Salzburg, Austria, Tel:+43 664 452 3909;+43 662 8044 4884, Fax:+43 662 8044 1043, E-mail:


The aim of this study was to analyze double poling using combined kinetic and 3D kinematic analysis at high skiing speeds as regards pole force components, pole angles and pole behavior during the poling and swing phase. The hypothesis was that a horizontal pole force is more predictive for maximal skiing speed (Vmax) than the resultant pole force. Sixteen elite skiers performed a double-poling Vmax test while treadmill roller skiing. Pole forces and 3D kinematics of pole movement at a speed of 30 km/h were analyzed and related to Vmax. The duration of the “preparation phase” showed the strongest relationship with Vmax (r=0.87, P<0.001). Faster skiers generated longer cycle lengths with longer swing and poling times, had less inclined pole angles at pole plant and a later peak pole force. Horizontal pole forces were not more highly related to Vmax compared with the resultant pole force. Impact force was not related to Vmax. At high skiing speeds, skiers should aim to combine high pole forces with appropriate timing of pole forces and appropriate pole and body positions during the swing and poling phase. The emphasis in training should be on the development of specific strength capacities for pole force production and the utilization of these capacities in double-poling training sessions.