Effects of prolonged and maintenance strength training on force production, walking, and balance in aging women and men

Authors

  • J. Holviala,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
    • Corresponding author: Jarkko Holviala, MS, PhD student, Department of Biology of Physical Activity and, Neuromuscular Research Center, University of Jyväskylä, PO Box 35, 40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Tel: +358 50344 9700, +358 14260 4698, Fax: +358 14 260 2071, E-mail: jarkko.holviala@jyu.fi

    Search for more papers by this author
  • A. Häkkinen,

    1. Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland
    2. Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • M. Alen,

    1. Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • J. Sallinen,

    1. Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • W. Kraemer,

    1. Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • K. Häkkinen

    1. Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

To examine effects of 21-week twice/week strength training (ST) period followed by an additional 21-week twice or once/week ST period on force production, walking and balance in aging people. Seventy-two women (58 ± 7 years; W) and 63 (58 ± 6 years) men (M) were randomized for the first 21-week ST period: STW and STM, control (C) CW and CM. Training participants were randomized for the second 21-week ST period: once/week STWx1 and STMx1, twice/week STWx2 and STMx2. LegPress, isometric leg extension rate of force development (RFD), walking time, and balance. First 21-week ST period: leg press, RFD, balance, and walking improved significantly in STW and STM. Second 21-week ST period: leg press first increased in STMx1 and STMx2, and then decreased to the level of 21 weeks in STMx2 and remained unchanged in STWx2 and decreased in STWx1 and STMx1. Walking and balance improved significantly in STWx1 and STWx2. A progressive 21-week ST period twice/week in aging people can lead to large improvements in maximal strength, walking time, and balance in both genders. A further strength training period with the same amount of training may maintain the strength gains, whereas balance and walking may be maintained with less training.

Ancillary