Golgi Complex Organization in Skeletal Muscle: A Role for Golgi-Mediated Glycosylation in Muscular Dystrophies?


Justin M. Percival, justinp2@u.washington.edu


The Golgi complex (GC) is the central organelle of the classical secretory pathway, and it receives, modifies and packages proteins and lipids en route to their intracellular or extracellular destinations. Recent studies of congenital muscular dystrophies in skeletal muscle suggest an exciting new role for an old and well-established function of the GC: glycosylation. Glycosylation is the exquisitely regulated enzymatic addition of nucleotide sugars to proteins and lipids mediated by glycosyltransferases (GTs). Mutations in putative Golgi-resident GTs, fukutin, fukutin-related protein and large1 cause these progressive muscle-wasting diseases. The appropriate localization of GTs to specific subcompartments of the Golgi is critical for the correct assembly line-like addition of glycan groups to proteins and lipids as they pass through the GC. Consequently, these studies of congenital muscular dystrophies have focused attention on the organization and function of the GC in skeletal muscle. In contrast to other cells and tissues, the GC in skeletal muscle has received relatively little attention; however, in recent years, several studies have shown that GC distribution in muscle is highly dynamic or plastic and adopts different distributions in muscle cells undergoing myogenesis, denervation, regeneration and maturation. Here, we review the current understanding of the dynamic regulation of GC organization in skeletal muscle and focus on the targeting of fukutin, fukutin-related protein and large1 to the GC in muscle cells.