• axon initial segment;
  • binding motifs;
  • cardiac myocyte;
  • endocytosis;
  • neuron;
  • node of Ranvier;
  • voltage-gated sodium channels

Electrical excitability in cells such as neurons and myocytes depends not only upon the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels but also on their correct targeting within the plasma membrane. Placing sodium channels within a broader cell biological context is beginning to shed new light on a variety of important questions such as the integration of neuronal signaling. Mutations that affect sodium channel trafficking have been shown to underlie several life-threatening conditions including cardiac arrhythmias, revealing an important clinical context to these studies.