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Keywords:

  • Toll-like receptors;
  • B cells;
  • macrophages;
  • dendritic cells

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune system receptors responsible for recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMP binding to TLRs initiates intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the upregulation of a variety of costimulatory molecules and the synthesis and secretion of various cytokines and interferons by cells of the innate immune system. TLR-induced innate immune responses are a prerequisite for the generation of most adaptive immune responses, and in the case of B cells, TLRs directly regulate signaling from the antigen-specific B-cell receptor. The outcome of TLR signaling is determined, in part, by the cells in which they are expressed and by the selective use of signaling adaptors. Recent studies suggest that, in addition, both the ligand recognition by TLRs and the functional outcome of ligand binding are governed by the subcellular location of the TLRs and their signaling adaptors. In this review we describe what is known about the intracellular trafficking and compartmentalization of TLRs in innate system's dendritic cells and macrophages and in adaptive system's B cells, highlighting how location regulates TLR function.