Common Membrane Trafficking Defects of Disease-Associated Dynamin 2 Mutations


Sandra L. Schmid,


Dynamin (Dyn) is a multidomain and multifunctional GTPase best known for its essential role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Dyn2 mutations have been linked to two human diseases, centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Paradoxically, although Dyn2 is ubiquitously expressed and essential for embryonic development, the disease-associated Dyn2 mutants are autosomal dominant, but result in slowly progressing and tissue-specific diseases. Thus, although the cellular defects that cause disease remain unclear, they are expected to be mild. To gain new insight into potential pathogenic mechanisms, we utilized mouse Dyn2 conditional knockout cells combined with retroviral-mediated reconstitution to mimic both heterozygous and homozygous states and characterized cellular phenotypes using quantitative assays for several membrane trafficking events. Surprisingly, none of the four mutants studied exhibited a defect in CME, but all were impaired in their ability to support p75/neurotrophin receptor export from the Golgi, the raft-dependent endocytosis of cholera toxin and the clathrin-independent endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). While it will be important to study these mutants in disease-relevant muscle and neuronal cells, given the importance of neurotrophic factors and lipid rafts in muscle physiology, we speculate that these common cellular defects might contribute to the tissue-specific diseases caused by a ubiquitously expressed protein.