SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Arkin, P. A. 1982. The relationship between interannual variability in the 200 mb tropical wind field and the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 110, 13931404.
  • Arkin, P. A., Kopman, J. D. and Reynolds, R. W. 1983. 1982–1983 El Niño/Southern Oscillation Event quick look atlas (Available from NOAA/NWS Climate Analysis Center, National Meteorological Center, Washington, D.C., 20233).
  • Berlage, H. P. 1966. The Southern Oscillation and world weather. Mededel. Verhandel. 88, Kon. Ned. Meteor. Inst., 152 pp.
  • Berlage, H. P. and De Boer, H. J. 1959. On the extension of the Southern Oscillation throughout the world during the period July 1, 1949 up to July 1, 1957. Geofis. pura e appl. 44, 287295.
  • Bhalme, H. N., Mooley, D. A. and Jadhav, S. K. 1983. Fluctuations in the Drought/flood area over India and relationships with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 111, 8694.
  • Bjerknes, J. 1966. A possible response of the atmospheric Hadley circulation to equatorial anomalies of ocean temperature. Tellus 18, 820829.
  • Bjerknes, J. 1969. Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev. 97, 163172.
  • Bjerknes, J. 1972. Large-scale atmospheric response to the 1965–65 Pacific equatorial warming. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 212217.
  • Blackmon, M. L., Geisler, J. E. and Pitcher, E. J. 1983. A general circulation model study of January climate anomaly patterns associated with interannual variation of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 14101425.
  • Busalacchi, A. J. and O'Brien, J. J. 1980. The seasonal variability in a model of the tropical Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 19291951.
  • Caviedes, C. N. 1973. Secas and El Niño: Two simulations climatical hazards in South America. Proc. Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 5, 4449.
  • Chen, W. Y. 1982. Fluctuations in Northern Hemisphere 700 mb height field associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 110, 808823.
  • Climate Analysis Center 1983a. Special climate diagnostics bulletin, 14 February, 1983. Equatorial Pacific warm episode reaches mature state. (Available from NOAA/NWS Climate Analysis Center, National Meteorological Center, Washington, D.C., 20233.).
  • Climate Analysis Center 1983b. Special climate diagnostics bulletin, 15 April 1983. Update on the 1982–83 equatorial Pacific warm episode. (Available from NOAA/NWS Climate Analysis Centre, National Meteorological Center, Washington, D.C., 20233.).
  • Climate Analysis Center 1983c. Special Climate diagnostics bulletin, 15 June 1983. The 1982–83 Pacific warm episode: Intense El Niño conditions persists in eastern equatorial Pacific. (Available from NOAA/NWS, Climate Analysis Center, National Meteorological Center, Washington, D.C., 20233.).
  • Climate Analysis Center 1983d. Special climate diagnostic bulletin, 15 July 1983. The 1982–83 Pacific warm episode: Falling sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific. (Available from NOAA/NWS, Climate Analysis Center, National Meteorological Center, Washington, D.C., 20233.).
  • Godbole, R. V. and Shukla, J. 1981. Global analysis of January and July sea level pressure. NASA Technical Memorandum 82097, Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771.
  • Gruber, A. 1972. Fluctuations in the position of the ITCZ in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 193197.
  • Hastenrath, S. and Heller, L. 1977. Dynamics of climatic hazards in northeast Brazil. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 103, 7792.
  • Heddinghaus, T. R. and Krueger, A. F. 1981. Annual and inter-annual variations in outgoing long-wave radiation over the tropics. Mon. Wea. Rev. 109, 12081218.
  • Hickey, B. 1975. The relationship between fluctuations in sea level, wind stress and sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 5, 460475.
  • Hirst, A. C. and Hastenrath, S. 1983. On mechanisms of sea temperature and rainfall anomalies in the Angola-tropical Atlantic sector. Preprints First International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, 31 July-6 August 1983, São José dos Campos, Brazil, 130131.
  • Horel, J. D. and Wallace, J. M. 1981. Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 109, 813829.
  • Hoskins, B. J. and Karoly, D. 1981. The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 11791196.
  • Julian, P. R. and Chervin, R. M. 1978. A study of the Southern Oscillation and Walker Circulation phenomenon. Mon. Wea. Rev. 106, 14331451.
  • Kidson, J. W. 1975. Tropical eigenvector analysis and the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 103, 187196.
  • Liebmann, B. and Hartmann, D. L. 1982. Interannual variations of outgoing IR associated with tropical circulation changes during 1974–78. J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 11531162.
  • Markham, C. G. and McLain, D. R. 1977. Sea surface temperature related to rain in Ceara, northeast Brazil. Nature 265, 320323.
  • Mossman, R. C. 1924. Indian monsoon rainfall in relation to South American weather, 1875–1914. Mem. Ind. Meteorol. Dept. 23, 157242.
  • Moura, A. D. and Shukla, J. 1981. On the dynamics of drought in Northeast Brazil: Observations, theory and numerical experiments with a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 26532675.
  • Moura, A. D. and Kagano, M. T. 1983. Teleconnections between South America and western Africa as revealed by monthly precipitation analyses. Preprints First International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, 31 July-6 August 1983, São José dos Campos, Brazil, 120122.
  • Newell, R. E. 1979. Climate and the ocean. Amer. Sci. 67, 405416.
  • Opsteegh, J. D. and Van den Dool, H. M. 1980. Seasonal differences in the stationary response of a linearized primitive equation model: Prospects for long-range forecasting J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 21692185.
  • Philander, S. G. H. 1983. El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena. Nature 302, 295301.
  • Quinn, W. N., Zopf, D. O., Short, K. S. and Yang, Kuo R. T. W. 1978. Historical trends and statistics of the Southern Oscillation, El Niño, and Indonesian droughts. Fish. Bull. 76, 663678.
  • Rasmusson, E. M. and Carpenter, T. H. 1982. Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño. Mon. Wea. Rev. 110, 354384.
  • Rasmusson, E. M. and Carpenter, T. H. 1983. The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon. Wea. Rev. 111, 517528.
  • Rasmusson, E. M. and Wallace, J. M. 1983. Meteorological aspects of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Science 222, 11951202.
  • Rasmusson, E. M. and Hall, J. M. 1983. Pacific Ocean event of 1982–83. Weatherwise 36, 166175.
  • Simmons, A. J., Wallace, J. M. and Branstator, G. W. 1983. Barotropic wave propagation and instability and atmospheric teleconnection patterns. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 13631392.
  • Streten, N. A. 1983. Southern Hemisphere circulation contrasts in the winters of 1972 and 1973. Preprints First International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, 31 July-6 August, 1983, São José dos Campos, Brazil, 108111.
  • Trenberth, K. E. 1976. Spatial and temperal variations of the Southern Oscillation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 102, 639653.
  • Troup, A. J. 1965. The Southern Oscillation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 91, 490506.
  • Van Loon, H. 1956. Blocking action in the Southern Hemisphere, Part I, Notos 5, 171175.
  • Van Loon, H. and Madden, R. A. 1981. The Southern Oscillation. Part 1: Global associations with pressure and temperature in northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev. 109, 11501162.
  • Van Loon, H. and Rogers, J. C. 1981. The Southern Oscillation. Part 2: Associations with changes in the middle troposphere in the northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev. 109, 11631168.
  • Walker, G. T. 1923. Correlation in seasonal variations of weather VIII. Mem. Ind. Meteorol. Dept. 24, 75131.
  • Walker, G. T. 1924: Correlation in seasonal variation of weather IX. Mem. Ind. Meteorol. Dept. 24, 275332.
  • Walker, G. T. 1928a. World Weather III. Mem. R. Meteorol. Soc. 2, 97106.
  • Walker, G. T. 1928b. Ceara (Brazil) famines and the general air movement. Beith. Phys. d. freien Amos. 14, 8893.
  • Walker, G. T. and Bliss, E. W. 1932. World Weather V. Mem. R. Meteorol. Soc. 4, 5384.
  • Walker, G. T. and Bliss, E. W. 1937. World Weather IV. Mem. R. Meteorol. Soc. 4, 119139.
  • Webster, P. J. 1981. Mechanisms determining the atmospheric response to sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 554571.
  • Wooster, W. S. and Guillen, O. 1974. Characteristics of El Niño in 1972. J. Mar. Res. 32, 387404.
  • Wyrtki, K. 1975. El Niño—The dynamic response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to atmospheric forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 5, 572584.
  • Wyrtki, K. 1983. Sea level in the equatorial Pacific in 1982. Tropical Ocean. Atmos. Newsl. No. 16, 67.