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Appendix S1. Mean monthly surface concentrations of CO in Europe produced by the nested-grid simulation (S2) in (a) winter and (b) summer.

Percentage difference between the predicted CO concentrations (C) calculated by the nested-grid (S2) and the global (S1) simulations of GEOS-CHEM {[(CS2-CS1)/CS1]×100%} for winter (c) and summer (d).

(a) Modelled OH distribution by the nested-grid (S2) simulation of GEOS-CHEM in summer, (b) percentage difference of OH in summer calculated between the concentrations (C) calculated by the nested-grid (S2) and the global (S1) simulations of GEOS-CHEM, given by [(CS2-CS1)/CS1] × 100%.

Percentage difference of O3 concentrations in summer at surface in Europe between the nested-grid (S2) and the global (S1) simulations of GEOS-CHEM predicted concentrations (C), given by [(CS2-CS1)/CS1] × 100%.

Appendix S2. Measured (Air Quality Database of the European Environmental Agency, http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/airbase-the-european-air-quality-database-1) and modelled mean daily CO concentrations (in ppbv) calculated by the nested-grid (S2) and the global (S1) simulations of GEOS-CHEM for 31 stations in Europe in 2001.

Appendix S3. Statistical parameters equations.

Appendix S4. Composites of 13 circulation patterns at mean sea level over Europe based on the classification developed by Kostopoulou and Jones (2007).

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