ABSTRACT: Twelve women underwent elective major gynecologic surgery for benign, non-pregnancy-related conditions. No perioperative or postoperative “anti-adhesion” adjuvants were used. Serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA) and peripheral cell counts, including lymphocyte subpopulations, were measured in each patient during the immediate preoperative and postoperative periods as well as 5 to 8 weeks later. These results were compared to a treatment population of 16 women who underwent similar surgery and received 150 ml 6% dextran 70 intraperitoneally at the conclusion of the procedure. There was a decrease in the level of all serum immunoglobulins measured in the immediate postoperative period in both groups (not statistically different). At 5 to 8 weeks postoperatively there was a greater level of IgM in the control population than in the dextrantreated group (P = 0.03). Alterations in the peripheral cell counts, including lymphocyte subpopulations, were similar in the two groups. The use of intraperitoneal 6% dextran 70 did not result in postoperative alterations in the human immune system different from those induced by the surgical procedure itself.