ABSTRACT: The responses of peripheral blood human T lymphocytes supported by decidual antigen-presenting cells (DAPCs) to a variety of immunogenic stimuli were studied and compared to those of T cells supported by peripheral blood antigen-presenting cells (PAPCs). Antigen-presenting cells were isolated from early normal decidual tissue or peripheral blood by elution with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid of cells that after Ficoll-Paque separation bear receptors for and have bound to fibronectin. DAPCs pulsed with soluble or particulate antigens induced proliferation of T cells with an efficiency equivalent to PAPCs. Decidual tissue APCs also showed the ability to stimulate auto- and alloreactivity. Treatment with anti-human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class II antibody and ultraviolet radiation resulted in substantial inhibition of the accessory cell function of DAPCs as well as of PAPCs. Bromodeoxyuridine and light treatment of alloreactive T cells generated in vitro was used to demonstrate that DAPCs primed with a synthetic polypeptide antigen (T,G)-A-L can stimulate only HLA class II-compatible T lymphocytes.