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ABSTRACT: Antisperm antibodies may play a role in the pathogenesis of infertility, particularly in the male. One of the standardized methods for detecting antisperm antibodies is the tray agglutination test (TAT). Unfortunately, this assay requires fresh motile spermatozoa. Tests for binding of antibody to fixed sperm or sperm extracts have been developed as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and we compared the results of using one such ELISA method with the TAT to detect antisperm antibodies in a panel of known positive and negative sera from infertile and control patients. With respect to the TAT assay, the ELISA gave a 75% false-positive test rate and a 63% false-negative rate. It is important to validate new assays such as the ELISA before widespread application to patient screening particularly since patients judged to have antisperm antibodies may be treated with high-dose corticosteroid drugs that are not without significant side effects.