• Spermatogenesis;
  • libido (sexual behavior);
  • testosterone;
  • tetanus toxoid

ABSTRACT: Male rats and rabbits were immunized against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (GnRH-TT) using only materials approved for humans. Testosterone (T)-releasing implants or the long-lasting T ester testosterone-17-trans-4-n-butyl-cyclohexane carboxylate (TE) was used as supplemental androgen for maintaining libido. Immunization against GnRH-TT effectively suppressed fertility (spermatogenesis) in rats and rabbits. Neither T nor TE administration restored fertility. Both androgens were effective in maintaining normal libido in rats. TE, which is not hydrolyzed in rabbits, was less effective in maintaining normal ejaculatory behavior in this species. Active immunization against GnRH could be a convenient and cost-effective method of fertility control in males.