ABSTRACT: The levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in peritoneal fluid (PF-IL-1β and PF-TNF) and production of IL-1β and TNF by peritoneal macrophages were determined in patients with benign gynecologic disease. The level of PF-IL-1β was elevated in the acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and stages I and II endometriosis (E I/II) groups compared with the normal pelvis group, but not in the myoma of the uterus, ovarian cyst, and postinflammatory pelvic adhesion groups. The level of PF-TNF was elevated in the PID, EI/II and stages III and IV endometriosis (EIII/IV) groups. There was no correlation between the levels of PF-IL-β and PF-TNF. Neither the level of PF-IL-β nor that of PF-TNF was correlated with the concentration of peritoneal macrophages. Peritoneal macrophages produced IL-1β and TNF in vitro in the absence of stimulants. The levels of PF-IL-1β and PF-TNF are presumably linked to the activation of peritoneal macrophages.