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Keywords:

  • Cytokines;
  • trophoblast;
  • implantation;
  • blastocyst

ABSTRACT: Cytokines considered critical in pregnancy include interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and colony stimulating factor (CSF-1). They affect blastocyst attachment, trophoblast outgrowth, implantation, proliferation of cells isolated from placentas, proliferation of trophoblast cell lines, and percent fetal resorption in spontaneously aborting mice. Cytokines also affect chorionic gonadotrophin and progesterone production by trophoblast. Cytokine effects vary with concentration, route of administration, and timing of secretion.