• Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis;
  • Sjogren's syndrome;
  • HIV infection

ABSTRACT: Certain maternal/infant pairs, as well as other high-risk adults, develop a host-response HIV-1 infection characterized by circulating and tissue infiltrative CD8 T-cell lymphocytosis, termed Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS). DILS primarily occurs in the salivary glands, lungs, renal interstitium, and gastrointestinal tract. DILS differs from Sjogren's syndrome in the degree of salivary gland enlargement, high frequency of extra-glandular manifestations, paucity of autoantibodies, and distinct immunogenetic associations. Salivary gland B-cell lymphoma is a complication common to both conditions. The circulating CD8 T cells in DILS have a memory phenotype. Egress into target tissues involves adhesion molecule receptor-ligand interactions, apparently in response to the local presence of HIV-1. Immunogenetic predisposition involves interaction between both MHC classes I and II loci. This disease appears to reflect a specific host response that leads to persistence of monocyte-tropic, rather than T-cell-tropic, HIV-1 strains, in an analogous fashion to Visna Maedi virus disease in sheep. The development of DILS in children appears to be regulated in a dominant fashion by maternally or paternally inherited MHC class II alleles in response to transplacentally or perinatally acquired maternal HIV-1 strains.