PROBLEM: The goal of this study was to measure anti-sperm antibodies in serum following intraluminal uterine immunization and to compare this with the formation of antibodies following intraperitoneal (i.p.) or anal immunization.
METHOD: Mice were immunized with human sperm, and antibody was measured using an indirect immunobead assay.
RESULTS: High levels of anti-sperm antibodies could be measured following intrauterine immunization and i.p. immunization. Anal immunization resulted in lower levels of antibody formation. Antibody formation after intrauterine immunization was less consistent following transcervical insertion than following needle insertion of sperm.
CONCLUSION: The data suggest that intrauterine immunization can result in anti-sperm antibody formation under some conditions.