Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor Production by Autologous Endometrial Co-Culture Is Associated with Outcome for In Vitro Fertilization Patients with a History of Multiple Implantation Failures

Authors

  • S.D. Spandorfer MD,

    Corresponding author
    1. The Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York
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  • L.I. Barmat,

    1. The Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York
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  • H.-C. Liu,

    1. The Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York
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  • C. Mele,

    1. The Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York
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  • L. Veeck,

    1. The Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York
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  • Z. Rosenwaks

    1. The Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York
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The Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, 505 E. 70th Street, HMT-338, The New York Hospital/ Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY 10021.

Abstract

PROBLEM: To determine whether granulocyte macrophage (GM)-colony stimulating factor (CSF) produced by autologous endometrial co-culture was associated with outcome in 53 patients with a history of multiple in vitro fertilization failures.

METHOD OF STUDY: The conditioned media from endometrial co-culture cells exposed or non-exposed to human embryos was analyzed for GM-CSF.

RESULTS: Exposure or non-exposure to an embryo did not result in an enhancement of GM-CSF production. Insignificant levels of GM-CSF were determined from media alone. ROC analysis revealed that levels of GM-CSF from supernatants of endometrial co-culture exposed to embryos that measured below 130 pg/ml reflected a diminished prognosis (5/17 had a positive pregnancy vs. 21/36 with GM-CSF levels greater than 130 pg/ml; P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The improved outcome associated with GM-CSF values greater than 130 pg/ml may reflect: 1) a direct positive effect of GM-CSF; 2) an embryotrophic factor upregulated by GM-CSF; or, 3) that GM-CSF functions as a marker for the importance of the glandular component in endometrial co-culture systems.

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