Increased Numbers of Circulating Interferon-γ-and Interleukin-4-Secreting Cells During Normal Pregnancy
Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 39, Issue 6, pages 362–367, June 1998
How to Cite
Matthiesen, L., Berg, G., Ekerfelt, C., Ernerudh, J. and Ernerudh, J. (1998), Increased Numbers of Circulating Interferon-γ-and Interleukin-4-Secreting Cells During Normal Pregnancy. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 39: 362–367. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.1998.tb00370.x
- Issue published online: 6 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011
- Accepted February 5, 1998
- human pregnancy;
PROBLEM: Systemic immune responses during normal pregnancy are suggested to deviate toward secretion of T helper (Th)2-like cytokines.
METHOD OF STUDY: Blood samples from 11 healthy Primigravidae in their first, second, and third trimesters, and 8 weeks postpartum were examined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and the numbers of interferon (IFN)-γ- and interleukin (IL)-4-secreting cells were identified by using the enzyme-linked immunospot test.
RESULTS: In all three trimesters of pregnancy, and also postpartum, the numbers of IFN-γ-and IL-4-secreting cells were significantly higher compared with nonpregnant controls (Mann-Whitney; P < 0.001). The numbers of IFN-γ-and IL-4-secreting cells gradually increased as the pregnancy progressed compared with postpartum (Kruskas-Wallis; P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, for IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively).
The ratios of IFN-γ/IL-4 during pregnancy and postpartum were unchanged, and also when compared with nonpregnant controls.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate a systemic up-regulation of both Th1- and Th2-like immune responses during normal pregnancy.