Gender Difference in the Non-Specific and Specific Immune Response in Humans
Article first published online: 24 JUN 2004
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 52, Issue 1, pages 19–26, July 2004
How to Cite
Bouman, A., Schipper, M., Heineman, M. J. and Faas, M. M. (2004), Gender Difference in the Non-Specific and Specific Immune Response in Humans. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 52: 19–26. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2004.00177.x
- Issue published online: 24 JUN 2004
- Article first published online: 24 JUN 2004
- Submitted 23 October, 2003; revised 19 February, 2004; accepted 8 March, 2004.
Problem: The purpose of this present ex vivo study is to get insight in the sex differences of the basic non-specific and specific immune response.
Method of study: Intracellular types 1 and 2 cytokine production by stimulated male and female lymphocytes and monocytes in a whole blood preparation was measured by flow cytometry.
Results: Increased percentage interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α producing monocytes and decreased percentage IL-2 producing lymphocytes, i.e. type 1 cytokine, were found in men as compared with women.
Conclusion: These results suggest a gender difference in the balance between the specific and non-specific immune response, i.e. a more profound and higher state of excitation of the non-specific immune response and relative suppression of the cellular immune response of the specific immune system in men as compared with women.