Prebreeding Maternal Immunostimulation with Freund's Complete Adjuvant Reduces Placental Damage and Distal Limb Defects Caused by Methylnitrosourea
Article first published online: 19 JAN 2006
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 55, Issue 2, pages 145–155, February 2006
How to Cite
Renee Prater, M., Zimmerman, K. L., Laudermilch, C. L. and Holladay, S. D. (2006), Prebreeding Maternal Immunostimulation with Freund's Complete Adjuvant Reduces Placental Damage and Distal Limb Defects Caused by Methylnitrosourea. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 55: 145–155. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2005.00345.x
- Issue published online: 19 JAN 2006
- Article first published online: 19 JAN 2006
- Submitted April 28, 2005; revised October 18, 2005; accepted November 1, 2005.
- C57BL/6N mouse;
- CD-1 mouse;
- developmental immunotoxicology;
- Freund's complete adjuvant;
Problem Immunostimulation reduces murine teratogen-induced birth defects. It is unclear if placental improvement contributes to this outcome. The current study examined murine placental ultrastructure and fetal limb development following maternal methylnitrosourea (MNU) exposure, ±Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) immunostimulation.
Method of study Two murine strains (CD-1, C57BL/6N) were administered MNU on gestation day 9 (GD9), FCA pre-breeding, or FCA + MNU. Fetal limb and placental development were examined on GD14.
Results MNU decreased placental weight and reduced placental cellular viability; FCA reversed these effects. MNU shortened fetal limbs and increased digital defects in both strains. Placentas were less damaged in C57BL/6N versus CD-1 mice, and distal limb malformations improved only in CD-1 mice. FCA immunostimulation also increased pregnancy rate.
Conclusion Improved fetal outcome from immune-stimulated mice may not be dependent on improved placental morphology. However, placental function and morphology in immune-stimulated mice may not directly correlate, thus functional improvements should be examined for possible relationship to reduced birth defects.