Problem To determine the associations between preterm delivery <37 weeks (PTD), cervical fluid interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentration, and its +3953 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).
Method of Study Cervical fluid, peripheral blood, and cord blood samples were obtained from a cohort of women 23–32 weeks gestation with preterm labor symptoms and intact membranes.
Results Increased cervical fluid concentrations of IL-1β were associated with PTD (P = 0.017) and spontaneous PTD (P = 0.001). Maternal IL-1β +3953 SNP genotype was associated neither with PTD (P = 0.43) nor with cervical fluid IL-1β concentrations (P = 0.35). Neonatal IL-1β +3953 SNP genotype was associated neither with PTD nor cervical IL-1β concentrations.
Conclusions Cervical fluid concentrations of IL-1β were elevated in symptomatic women destined to have a spontaneous PTD. The gene dosage of maternal IL-1β +3953 allele 2 was associated neither with increased cervical fluid concentrations of IL-1β nor with risk of PTD.