Objectives Soluble (s)HLA-G1 is produced by trophoblast cells. Aim was to analyze the capacities and mechanisms of sHLA-G1 to regulate interleukin (IL)-2-induced cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells from human deciduas.
Methods Natural killer cells were isolated from decidual layers of term placentae, stimulated or not with IL-2 and supplemented with various concentrations of recombinant soluble HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1). For NK cell cytotoxicity assays, K562 cells were used as targets. Expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and perforin was analyzed by Western blotting. Apoptosis was examined by assessment of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. NK cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for IL-2receptor-α (IL-2Rα; CD25) and transferrin receptor CD71 expression.
Results Interleukin-2 increases CD71, STAT3, perforin expression and cytotoxic potential of NK cells. Expression of CD71, STAT3 and perforin decreased simultaneously with cytotoxicity and dose-dependently when sHLA-G1 (1.6 μg/mL–1.6 ng/mL) was added to IL-2 stimulated cultures. sHLA-G1 did not induce apoptosis and CD25 expression was not affected.
Conclusion Interleukin-2Rα expression is not controlled by sHLA-G1, but its signal transducer STAT3 as well as several downstream effects, such as perforin expression, proliferation and cytotoxicity. The control of STAT3 bioavailability through sHLA-G1 may be a key regulator of the mentioned effects.