Elevation of Amniotic Fluid Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Normotensive Pregnancies That Delivered Small-For-Gestational-Age Infants
Article first published online: 11 APR 2007
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 57, Issue 6, pages 488–494, June 2007
How to Cite
Hayashi, M., Zhu, K., Sagesaka, T., Fukasawa, I. and Inaba, N. (2007), Elevation of Amniotic Fluid Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Normotensive Pregnancies That Delivered Small-For-Gestational-Age Infants. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 57: 488–494. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2007.00480.x
- Issue published online: 11 APR 2007
- Article first published online: 11 APR 2007
- Submitted January 11, 2007; accepted February 5, 2007.
- Amniotic fluid;
- macrophage colony-stimulating factor;
- normotensive pregnancies;
- pregnancies that produced appropriate-for-gestational-age infants;
- pregnancies that produced small-for-gestational-age infants
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) promotes placental growth and maintenance. We evaluated whether amniotic fluid M-CSF levels were altered in normotensive pregnancies that produced small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants arising from unknown factors.
Method of study
This study enrolled 68 Japanese women experiencing normotensive pregnancies with single fetuses. Of these pregnancies, 22 delivered SGA infants arising from unknown factors (SGA group); one delivered an SGA infant with intestinal obstruction. The other 45 were women who delivered appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (AGA group). They were selected as controls. Amniotic fluid was collected and the M-CSF levels were compared between the two groups. The M-CSF level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.
Amniotic fluid M-CSF concentrations were 6525 pg/mL (median) in the SGA group and 4790 pg/mL in the AGA group; the concentrations were significantly higher in the SGA group than in the AGA group. The M-CSF concentrations in the woman who delivered an SGA infant with intestinal obstruction showed very high values (24290 pg/mL).
We demonstrated a significant increase in amniotic fluid M-CSF levels in the SGA group. Excessive concentrations of M-CSF in amniotic fluid via amniotic membranes may be highly related to immunological abnormalities contributing to low birth weight of neonates.