• Endometriosis;
  • genetic factor;
  • human leukocyte antigen;
  • killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor;
  • polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer

Problem  Endometriosis is an immune-related chronic inflammatory disease with a polygenic predisposition. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) is responsible, in part, for genetic susceptibility to endometriosis.

Method of study  The KIRs genotype was determined in 186 patients with endometriosis and 165 control women using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers.

Results  The frequency of KIR3DS1 was significantly decreased in patients compared with controls (32%versus 44%, P = 0.028). KIR data were analyzed using a model comprised of three large groups, in which a gradient of activation/inhibitory potential derived from the combination of KIR and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligand genes was taken into account. The frequency of inhibitory KIRs/HLA-class I combination genotypes was significantly higher in patients than in controls (χ2 = 6.010, 2 df, P = 0.0496).

Conclusion  Our results suggest that polymorphism in KIRs may be associated with susceptibility for endometriosis.