• IFN-γ;
  • leukocyte therapy;
  • recurrent spontaneous abortion;
  • TNF-α


Considering the deleterious role of T helper1 (Th1) cells in pregnancy outcome, a successful treatment for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) should be able to make a significant shift away from Th1 responses. Although paternal leukocyte immunization has been used for treatment of RSA for years, because of methodological differences there is no consensus on the mechanism of action and effectiveness of this method.

Method of study

Twenty-five Iranian non-pregnant women with RSA and 16 non-pregnant control women with at least two successful pregnancies were included in this study. All cases were followed up after leukocyte therapy for pregnancy outcome. Mononuclear cells from women were co-cultured with the husband’s mononuclear cells before and after immunotherapy. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were checked on culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.


The mean concentration of TNF-α was significantly higher in patients compared with that in normal controls (P = 0.0001). After immunotherapy, the TNF-α level was only significantly decreased in women with successful outcome (P = 0.0001). Immunotherapy also induced a significant reduction in the IFN-γ level (P = 0.009).


The results of this investigation confirm the role of TNF-α in RSA and propose the assessment of TNF-α production as a valuable prognostic parameter for the prediction of abortion after leukocyte therapy.