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REVIEW ARTICLE: Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions: A Comprehensive Review

Authors

  • Yoon Kyong Choi,

    1. Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science/The Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL, USA
    2. Mirae and Heemang Ob/Gyn Clinic, Seoul, Korea
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  • Joanne Kwak-Kim

    1. Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science/The Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL, USA
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Joanne Kwak-Kim, Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science/The Chicago Medical School. 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064,
USA. E-mail: joanne.kwak-kim@rosalindfranklin.edu

Abstract

Problem  Cytokine gene polymorphism studies in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are reviewed to provide comprehensive understanding and a direction for the future investigation.

Method of study  A search of PubMed was made to identify the published data between 2001 and 2007 regarding RSA and cytokine gene polymorphisms.

Results  Either allele and/or genotype frequencies of the following polymorphisms were reported to be significantly different between women with RSA and controls: IFN-γ +874A→T, TA (P = 0.01), AA (P = 0.04); IL-6, −634C→G CG/GG (P = 0.026); IL-10, −592C→A CC (P = 0.016); IL-1B −511C (P = 0.035), −31T (P = 0.029); IL-1RA, IL1RN*2 (P = 0.002), and IL1RN*3 (P = 0.002). None of these studies was repeatedly reported by others to be significantly different. Among these, four cytokine polymorphisms (IFN-γ, +874A→T; IL-1B −511C; IL-1RA, IL1RN*2, IL1RN*3) were refuted by others and rest of them were studied once.

Conclusion  Multiple cytokine polymorphisms were reported to be associated with RSA. However, a majority of studies were not confirmed by other investigators or refuted by others. Inconsistent study results might be related to: (i) the production of these cytokines is partly under genetic controls and other factors affect cytokine levels; (ii) ethnic background, environmental factors, and selection criteria for study populations are different and (iii) the possibilities exist that multiple cytokine gene polymorphisms or other genes in linkage disequilibrium may play a role in RSA.

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