ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Analysis of Immunological Markers Associated with Pregnancy and HIV-1 Infection: Relevance in Perinatal Transmission in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women with Low Plasma Viral Load
Article first published online: 18 JUL 2008
© 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Munksgaard
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 60, Issue 3, pages 264–273, September 2008
How to Cite
Sachdeva, N., Oshima, K., Cotter, A., Ashman, M., Davila, L., Okazaki, T., Inaba, N. and Asthana, D. (2008), ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Analysis of Immunological Markers Associated with Pregnancy and HIV-1 Infection: Relevance in Perinatal Transmission in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women with Low Plasma Viral Load. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 60: 264–273. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2008.00627.x
- Issue published online: 13 AUG 2008
- Article first published online: 18 JUL 2008
- Submitted March 12, 2008; accepted May 14, 2008.
- Activated T cells;
- CD8 T cells;
- myeloid-related protein-8;
- perinatal HIV-1 transmission;
- pregnant women;
- secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor
Problem In HIV-1-infected pregnant women with low plasma viral load, risk factors associated with perinatal HIV-1 transmission are not clearly understood.
Method of study We analyzed distribution of peripheral CD8 T-cell subsets, plasma cytokines and measured secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI) and myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8 levels in whole-blood and cervico-vaginal fluid (CVF) specimens obtained from 35 HIV-1-infected pregnant women (group 1), 12 HIV-1-infected non-pregnant women (group 2) and 15 HIV-1 uninfected pregnant women (group 3).
Results The group 1 women had higher expression of CD38, human leukocyte antigen-DR and CD95 on CD8 T-cells and higher levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor-α and epidermal growth factor. CVF-SLPI levels were the highest in group-3, while MRP-8 levels were the highest in group 1 women in plasma and CVF (P < 0.01). Although there were no cases of perinatal HIV-1 transmission, group 1 women undergoing HIV-1-indicated cesarean section had lower levels of CVF-SLPI as compared with those undergoing normal vaginal delivery.
Conclusion Pregnancy contributes to the activation of peripheral CD8 T cells and increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Production of protective mucosal secretory factors such as SLPI is affected by HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and down-regulated SLPI levels may indirectly indicate a higher possibility of perinatal HIV-1 transmission.