Both authors contributed equally to this study.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Female Genital Tract Secretions Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Correlation with Soluble Mucosal Immune Mediators and Impact of Hormonal Contraception
Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009
© 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 63, Issue 2, pages 110–119, February 2010
How to Cite
Shust, G. F., Cho, S., Kim, M., Madan, R. P., Guzman, E. M., Pollack, M., Epstein, J., Cohen, H. W., Keller, M. J. and Herold, B. C. (2010), ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Female Genital Tract Secretions Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Correlation with Soluble Mucosal Immune Mediators and Impact of Hormonal Contraception. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 63: 110–119. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2009.00768.x
- Issue published online: 6 JAN 2010
- Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009
- Submitted August 4, 2009; accepted September 21, 2009.
Vol. 63, Issue 5, 410, Article first published online: 9 APR 2010
- Genital herpes;
- mucosal immunity;
- reproductive hormones
Citation Shust GF, Cho S, Kim M, Madan RP, Guzman EM, Pollack M, Epstein J, Cohen HW, Keller MJ, Herold BC. Female genital tract secretions inhibit herpes simplex virus infection: correlation with soluble mucosal immune mediators and impact of hormonal contraception. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 110–119
Problem Female genital tract secretions inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, however, the intra- and inter-subject variability, contribution of specific mediators, and impact of reproductive hormones have not been defined.
Method of study Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) (n = 89) obtained from nine cyclers and seven women on hormonal contraception (HC), who completed between three and eight weekly visits, were examined for anti-herpes simplex virus activity and concentrations of mediators.
Results The CVL inhibited HSV infection by a mean value of approximately 57% during the follicular or luteal phase, but only by 36% in hormonal contraceptive users. Human neutrophil peptides 1–3 (HNP1-3) (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.003), lactoferrin (P = 0.005), lysozyme (P = 0.003), IgA (P = 0.002), and IgG (P = 0.02) correlated with antiviral activity. Intra-subject and inter-subject variability was observed, suggesting that factors other than hormones contribute to innate defense.
Conclusion Endogenous antimicrobial activity may provide a biomarker of healthy mucosal immunity and may be reduced in the setting of HC. However, larger prospective studies are needed.