• 1
    Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman RL: Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J Immunol 1986; 136:23482357.
  • 2
    Wegmann TG, Lin H, Guilbert L, Mosmann TR: Bidirectional cytokine interactions in the maternal-fetal relationship: is successful pregnancy a TH2 phenomenon? Immunol Today 1993; 14:353356.
  • 3
    Piccinni MP, Beloni L, Livi C, Maggi E, Scarselli G, Romagnani S: Defective production of both leukemia inhibitory factor and type 2 T-helper cytokines by decidual T cells in unexplained recurrent abortions. Nat Med 1998; 4:10201024.
  • 4
    Raghupathy R: Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy. Immunol Today 1997; 18:478482.
  • 5
    Saito S, Sakai M: Th1/Th2 balance in preeclampsia. J Reprod Immunol 2003; 59:161173.
  • 6
    Chaouat G, Lédée-Bataille N, Zourbas S, Ostojic S, Dubanchet S, Martal J, Frydman R: Cytokines, implantation and early abortion: re-examining the Th1/Th2 paradigm leads to question the single pathway, single therapy concept. Am J Reprod Immunol 2003; 50:177186.
  • 7
    Bates MD, Quenby S, Takakuwa K, Johnson PM, Vince GS: Aberrant cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in recurrent pregnancy loss? Hum Reprod 2002; 17:24392444.
  • 8
    Peck A, Mellins ED: Plasticity of T-cell phenotype and function: the T helper type 17 example. Immunology 2009; 129:147153.
  • 9
    Crome SQ, Wang AY, Levings MK: Translational mini-review series on Th17 cells: function and regulation of human T helper 17 cells in health and disease. Clin Exp Immunol 2010; 159:109119.
  • 10
    Sakaguchi S: Naturally arising Foxp3-expressing CD25 + CD4 +  regulatory T cells in immunological tolerance to self and non-self. Nat Immunol 2005; 6:345352.
  • 11
    Akbar AN, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Taams LS, Macallan DC: The dynamic co-evolution of memory and regulatory CD4+ T cells in the periphery. Nat Rev Immunol 2007; 7:231237.
  • 12
    Yoshinaga K: Review of factors essential for blastocyst implantation for their modulating effects on the maternal immune system. Semin Cell Dev Biol 2008; 19:161169.
  • 13
    Krey G, Frank P, Shaikly V, Barrientos G, Cordo-Russo R, Ringel F, Moschansky P, Chernukhin IV, Metodiev M, Fernández N, Klapp BF, Arck PC, Blois SM: In vivo dendritic cell depletion reduces breeding efficiency, affecting implantation and early placental development in mice. J.Mol Med 2008; 86:9991011.
  • 14
    Plaks V, Birnberg T, Berkutzki T, Sela S, BenYashar A, Kalchenko V, Mor G, Keshet E, Dekel N, Neeman M, Jung S: Uterine DCs are crucial for decidua formation during embryo implantation in mice. J Clin Invest 2008; 118:39543965.
  • 15
    Darrasse-Jèze G, Klatzmann D, Charlotte F, Salomon BL, Cohen JL: CD4+CD25+ regulatory/suppressor T cells prevent allogeneic fetus rejection in mice. Immunol Lett 2006; 102:106109.
  • 16
    Zenclussen AC, Gerlof K, Zenclussen ML, Sollwedel A, Bertoja AZ, Ritter T, Kotsch K, Leber J, Volk HD: Abnormal T-cell reactivity against paternal antigens in spontaneous abortion: adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells prevents fetal rejection in a murine abortion model. Am J Pathol 2005; 166:811822.
  • 17
    Aluvihare VR, Kallikourdis M, Betz AG: Regulatory T cells mediate maternal tolerance to the fetus. Nat Immunol 2004; 5:266271.
  • 18
    Arruvito L, Sanz M, Banham AH, Fainboim L: Expansion of CD4+CD25+ and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle: implications for human reproduction. J Immunol 2007; 178:25722578.
  • 19
    Robertson SA, Guerin LR, Bromfield JJ, Branson KM, Ahlström AC, Care AS: Seminal fluid drives expansion of the CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cell pool and induces tolerance to paternal alloantigens in mice. Biol Reprod 2009; 80:10361045.
  • 20
    Shima T: Paternal antigen-specific regulatory T cells proliferate in the draining lymph nodes before the implantation and proliferate in the uterus after the implantation, and are necessary for maintenance of allogeneic pregnancy 2010 ASRI Annual Meeting Abstract.
  • 21
    Guerin LR, Prins JR, Robertson SA: Regulatory T-cells and immune tolerance in pregnancy: a new target for infertility treatment? Hum Reprod Update 2009; 15:517535.
  • 22
    Schumacher A, Brachwitz N, Sohr S, Engeland K, Langwisch S, Dolaptchieva M, Alexander T, Taran A, Malfertheiner SF, Costa SD, Zimmermann G, Nitschke C, Volk HD, Alexander H, Gunzer M, Zenclussen AC: Human chorionic gonadotropin attracts regulatory T cells into the fetal-maternal interface during early human pregnancy. J Immunol 2009; 182:54885497.
  • 23
    Lédée-Bataille N, Dubanchet S, Coulomb-L’hermine A, Durand-Gasselin I, Frydman R, Chaouat G: A new role for natural killer cells, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18 in repeated implantation failure after in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 2004; 81:5965.
  • 24
    Jasper MJ, Tremellen KP, Robertson SA: Primary unexplained infertility is associated with reduced expression of the T-regulatory cell transcription factor Foxp3 in endometrial tissue. Mol Hum Reprod 2006; 12:301308.
  • 25
    Saito S: Cytokine network at the feto-maternal interface. J Reprod Immunol 2000; 47:87103.
  • 26
    Tsuda H, Michimata T, Sakai M, Nagata K, Nakamura M, Saito S: A novel surface molecule of Th2- and Tc2-type cells, CRTH2 expression on human peripheral and decidual CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the early stage of pregnancy. Clin Exp Immunol 2001; 123:105111.
  • 27
    Michimata T, Tsuda H, Sakai M, Fujimura M, Nagata K, Nakamura M, Saito S: Accumulation of CRTH2-positive T-helper 2 and T-cytotoxic 2 cells at implantation sites of human decidua in a prostaglandin D(2)-mediated manner. Mol Hum Reprod 2002; 8:181187.
  • 28
    Fallon PG, Jolin HE, Smith P, Emson CL, Townsend MJ, Fallon R, Smith P, McKenzie AN: IL-4 induces characteristic Th2 responses even in the combined absence of IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. Immunity 2002; 17:717.
  • 29
    Lin Y, Ren L, Wang W, Di J, Zeng S, Saito S: Effect of TLR3 and TLR7 activation in uterine NK cells from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Reprod Immunol 2009; 82:1223.
  • 30
    Miyazaki S, Tsuda H, Sakai M, Hori S, Sasaki Y, Futatani T, Miyawaki T, Saito S: Predominance of Th2-promoting dendritic cells in early human pregnancy decidua. J Leukoc Biol 2003; 74:514522.
  • 31
    Croy BA, Chantakru S, Esadeg S, Ashkar AA, Wei Q: Decidual natural killer cells: key regulators of placental development (a review). J Reprod Immunol 2002; 57:151168.
  • 32
    Nakashima A, Ito M, Yoneda S, Shiozaki A, Hidaka T, Saito S: Circulating and decidual Th17 cell levels in healthy pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63:104109.
  • 33
    Santner-Nanan B, Peek MJ, Khanam R, Richarts L, Zhu E, Fazekas de St Groth B, Nanan R: Systemic increase in the ratio between Foxp3+ and IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells in healthy pregnancy but not in preeclampsia. J Immunol 2009; 183:70237030.
  • 34
    Ito M, Nakashima A, Hidaka T, Okabe M, Bac ND, Ina S, Yoneda S, Shiozaki A, Sumi S, Tsuneyama K, Nikaido T, Saito S: A role for IL-17 in induction of an inflammation at the fetomaternal interface in preterm labour. J Reprod Immunol 2010; 84:7585.
  • 35
    Loong CC, Hsieh HG, Lui WY, Chen A, Lin CY: Evidence for the early involvement of interleukin 17 in human and experimental renal allograft rejection. J Pathol 2002; 197:322332.
  • 36
    Pongcharoen S, Supalap K: Interleukin-17 increased progesterone secretion by JEG-3 human choriocarcinoma cells. Am J Reprod Immunol 2009; 61:261264.
  • 37
    Sasaki Y, Sakai M, Miyazaki S, Higuma S, Shiozaki A, Saito S: Decidual and peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in early pregnancy subjects and spontaneous abortion cases. Mol Hum Reprod 2004; 10:347353.
  • 38
    Somerset DA, Zheng Y, Kilby MD, Sansom DM, Drayson MT: Normal human pregnancy is associated with an elevation in the immune suppressive CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T-cell subset. Immunology 2004; 112:3843.
  • 39
    Zhao JX, Zeng YY, Liu Y: Fetal alloantigen is responsible for the expansion of the CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cell pool during pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol 2007; 75:7181.
  • 40
    Tilburgs T, Roelen DL, Van Der Mast BJ, De Groot-Swings GM, Kleijburg C, Scherjon SA, Claas FH: Evidence for a selective migration of fetus-specific CD4+CD25bright regulatory T cells from the peripheral blood to the decidua in human pregnancy. J Immunol 2008; 180:57375745.
  • 41
    Tilburgs T, Scherjon SA, Van Der Mast BJ, Haasnoot GW, Versteeg-V D Voort-Maarschalk M, Roelen DL, Van Rood JJ, Claas FH: Fetal-maternal HLA-C mismatch is associated with decidual T cell activation and induction of functional T regulatory cells. J Reprod Immunol 2009; 82:148157.
  • 42
    Nakashima A, Ito M, Shima T, Bac ND, Hidaka T, Saito S: Accumulation of IL-17-positive cells in decidua of inevitable abortion cases. Am J Reprod Immunol. in press.
  • 43
    Wang WJ, Hao CF, Yi Lin, Yin GJ, Bao SH, Qiu LH, Lin QD: Increased prevalence of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in peripheral blood and decidua in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion patients. J Reprod Immunol 2010; 84:164170.
  • 44
    Arruvito L, Billordo A, Capucchio M, Prada ME, Fainboim L: IL-6 trans-signaling and the frequency of CD4+FOXP3+ cells in women with reproductive failure. J Reprod Immunol 2009; 82:158165.
  • 45
    Yang H, Qiu L, Chen G, Ye Z, Lü C, Lin Q: Proportional change of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in decidua and peripheral blood in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion patients. Fertil Steril 2008; 89:656661.
  • 46
    Pasare C, Medzhitov R: Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells. Science 2003; 299:10331036.
  • 47
    Yang Y, Huang CT, Huang X, Pardoll DM: Persistent Toll-like receptor signals are required for reversal of regulatory T cell-mediated CD8 tolerance. Nat Immunol 2004; 5:508515.
  • 48
    Shima T, Sasaki Y, Itoh M, Nakashima A, Ishii N, Sugamura K, Saito S: Regulatory T cells are necessary for implantation and maintenance during early stage of pregnancy, but not necessary during late stage of pregnancy in allogeneic mice. J Reprod Immunol in press.
  • 49
    Zenclussen AC, Gerlof K, Zenclussen ML, Ritschel S, Zambon Bertoja A, Fest S, Hontsu S, Ueha S, Matsushima K, Leber J, Volk HD: Regulatory T cells induce a privileged tolerant microenvironment at the fetal-maternal interface. Eur J Immunol 2006; 36:8294.
  • 50
    Makhseed M, Raghupathy R, El-Shazly S, Azizieh F, Al-Harmi JA, Al-Azemi MM: Pro-inflammatory maternal cytokine profile in preterm delivery. Am J Reprod Immunol 2003; 49:308318.
  • 51
    Gargano JW, Holzman C, Senagore P, Thorsen P, Skogstrand K, Hougaard DM, Rahbar MH, Chung H: Mid-pregnancy circulating cytokine levels, histologic chorioamnionitis and spontaneous preterm birth. J Reprod Immunol 2008; 79:100110.
  • 52
    Germain SJ, Sacks GP, Sooranna SR, Sargent IL, Redman CW: Systemic inflammatory priming in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia: the role of circulating syncytiotrophoblast microparticles. J Immunol 2007; 178:59495956.
  • 53
    Sasaki Y, Darmochwal-Kolarz D, Suzuki D, Sakai M, Ito M, Shima T, Shiozaki A, Rolinski J, Saito S: Proportion of peripheral blood and decidual CD4(+) CD25(bright) regulatory T cells in pre-eclampsia. Clin Exp Immunol 2007; 149:139145.
  • 54
    Steinborn A, Haensch GM, Mahnke K, Schmitt E, Toermer A, Meuer S, Sohn C: Distinct subsets of regulatory T cells during pregnancy: is the imbalance of these subsets involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia? Clin Immunol 2008; 129:401412.
  • 55
    Hu D, Chen Y, Zhang W, Wang H, Wang Z, Dong M: Alteration of peripheral CD4+CD25+ regulatory T lymphocytes in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2008; 87:190194.
  • 56
    Paeschke S, Chen F, Horn N, Fotopoulou C, Zambon-Bertoja A, Sollwedel A, Zenclussen ML, Casalis PA, Dudenhausen JW, Volk HD, Zenclussen AC: Pre-eclampsia is not associated with changes in the levels of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood. Am J Reprod Immunol 2005; 54:384389.
  • 57
    Acosta-Rodriguez EV, Napolitani G, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F: Interleukins 1beta and 6 but not transforming growth factor-beta are essential for the differentiation of interleukin 17-producing human T helper cells. Nat Immunol 2007; 8:942949.
  • 58
    Redman CW, Sacks GP, Sargent IL: Preeclampsia: an excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180:499506.
  • 59
    Levine RJ, Lam C, Qian C, Yu KF, Maynard SE, Sachs BP, Sibai BM, Epstein FH, Romero R, Thadhani R, Karumanchi SA: Soluble endoglin and other circulating antiangiogenic factors in preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:9921005.