Maternal and Fetal Response to Fetal Persistent Infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

Authors

  • Thomas R. Hansen,

    1. Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Natalia P. Smirnova,

    1. Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hana Van Campen,

    1. Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Megan L. Shoemaker,

    1. Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Andrey A. Ptitsyn,

    1. Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann

    1. School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Qld, Australia
    Search for more papers by this author

  • Presented as invited paper at the 29th Annual American Society of Reproductive Immunology Meeting, Orlando, FL, June 9, 2009. Dr. Hansen and Dr. Smirnova are co-first authors on this paper.

Thomas R. Hansen, Traubert Professor and Director, Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Campus Delivery 1683, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
E-mail: thomas.hansen@colostate.edu

Abstract

Citation Hansen TR, Smirnova NP, Van Campen H, Shoemaker ML, Ptitsyn AA, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H. Maternal and fetal response to fetal persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010

Problem  Infection of naïve pregnant cows with non-cytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in transplacental infection of the fetus. Infection of the pregnant cow with ncp BVDV late in gestation (after day 150) results in transient infection (TI), as both the dam and fetus can mount an immune response to the virus. In contrast, if the fetus is infected with ncp BVDV early in gestation (before day 150), the fetal immune system is undeveloped and unable to recognize the virus as foreign. This results in induction of immune tolerance to the infecting BVDV strain and persistent infection (PI).

Methods  Infection of naïve pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV2 on day 75 was hypothesized to induce differential gene expression in white blood cells of the dams and their fetuses, adversely affecting development and antiviral immune responses in PI fetuses.

Results  Gene expression differed in maternal blood cells in the presence of PI versus uninfected fetuses. PI adversely affected fetal development and antiviral responses, despite protective immune responses in the dam.

Conclusion  Fetal PI with BVDV alters maternal immune function, compromises fetal growth and immune responses, and results in expression of maternal blood biomarkers that can be used to identify cows carrying PI fetuses.

Ancillary