• 1
    Olafson P, MacCallum AD, Fox FH: An apparently new transmissible disease of cattle. Cornell Veterinarian 1946; 36:20513.
  • 2
    Fulton RW, Briggs RE, Ridpath JF, Saliki JT, Confer AW, Payton ME, Duff GC, Step DL, Walker DA: Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b to susceptible and vaccinated calves by exposure to persistently infected calves. Can J Vet Res 2005; 69:1619.
  • 3
    Fray MD, Paton DJ, Alenius S: The effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on cattle reproduction in relation to disease control. Anim Reprod Sci 2000; 60-61:61527.
  • 4
    Gunn GJ, Stott AW, Humphry RW: Modelling and costing BVD outbreaks in beef herds. Vet J 2004; 167:1439.
  • 5
    Houe H: Epidemiological features and economical importance of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections. Vet Microbiol 1999; 64:89107.
  • 6
    Brackenbury LS, Carr BV, Charleston B: Aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses to acute infections with BVDV. Vet Microbiol 2003; 96:33744.
  • 7
    Bielefeldt-Ohmann H: The pathologies of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection. A window on the pathogenesis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1995; 11:44776.
  • 8
    Peterhans E, Jungi TW, Schweizer M: BVDV and innate immunity. Biologicals 2003; 31:10712.
  • 9
    Potgieter LN: Immunology of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1995; 11:50120.
  • 10
    Baigent SJ, Zhang G, Fray MD, Flick-Smith H, Goodbourn S, McCauley JW: Inhibition of beta interferon transcription by noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus is through an interferon regulatory factor 3-dependent mechanism. J Virol 2002; 76:897988.
  • 11
    Chen Z, Rijnbrand R, Jangra RK, Devaraj SG, Qu L, Ma Y, Lemon SM, Li K: Ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3 induced by Npro from a cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus. Virology 2007; 366:27792.
  • 12
    Gil LH, Ansari IH, Vassilev V, Liang D, Lai VC, Zhong W, Hong Z, Dubovi EJ, Donis RO: The amino-terminal domain of bovine viral diarrhea virus Npro protein is necessary for alpha/beta interferon antagonism. J Virol 2006; 80:90011.
  • 13
    Gil LH, Van Olphen AL, Mittal SK, Donis RO: Modulation of PKR activity in cells infected by bovine viral diarrhea virus. Virus Res 2006; 116:6977.
  • 14
    Iqbal M, Poole E, Goodbourn S, McCauley JW: Role for bovine viral diarrhea virus Erns glycoprotein in the control of activation of beta interferon by double-stranded RNA. J Virol 2004; 78:13645.
  • 15
    Schweizer M, Matzener P, Pfaffen G, Stalder H, Peterhans E: “Self” and “nonself” manipulation of interferon defense during persistent infection: bovine viral diarrhea virus resists alpha/beta interferon without blocking antiviral activity against unrelated viruses replicating in its host cells. J Virol 2006; 80:692635.
  • 16
    Schweizer M, Peterhans E: Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits double-stranded RNA-induced apoptosis and interferon synthesis. J Virol 2001; 75:46928.
  • 17
    Saito T, Gale M Jr: Principles of intracellular viral recognition. Curr Opin Immunol 2007; 19:1723.
  • 18
    Samuel CE: Antiviral actions of interferons. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14:778809. table of contents.
  • 19
    Alexopoulou L, Holt AC, Medzhitov R, Flavell RA: Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3. Nature 2001; 413:7328.
  • 20
    Van Campen H, Vorpahl P, Huzurbazar S, Edwards J, Cavender J: A case report: evidence for type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-associated disease in beef herds vaccinated with a modified-live type 1 BVDV vaccine. J Vet Diagn Invest 2000; 12:2635.
  • 21
    Smirnova NP, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Van Campen H, Austin KJ, Han H, Montgomery DL, Shoemaker ML, Van Olphen AL, Hansen TR: Acute non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces pronounced type I interferon response in pregnant cows and fetuses. Virus Res 2008; 132:4958.
  • 22
    Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Tolnay AE, Reisenhauer CE, Hansen TR, Smirnova N, Van Campen H: Transplacental infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus types 1b and 2: viral spread and molecular neuropathology. J Comp Pathol 2008; 138:7285.
  • 23
    Brownlie J: The pathways for bovine virus diarrhoea virus biotypes in the pathogenesis of disease. Arch Virol Suppl 1991; 3:7996.
  • 24
    Kato H, Takeuchi O, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Matsui K, Uematsu S, Jung A, Kawai T, Ishii KJ, Yamaguchi O, Otsu K, Tsujimura T, Koh CS, Reise Sousa C, Matsuura Y, Fujita T, Akira S: Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses. Nature 2006; 441:1015.
  • 25
    Yoneyama M, Kikuchi M, Natsukawa T, Shinobu N, Imaizumi T, Miyagishi M, Taira K, Akira S, Fujita T: The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses. Nat Immunol 2004; 5:7307.
  • 26
    Ritchie KJ, Hahn CS, Kim KI, Yan M, Rosario D, Li L, De La Torre JC, Zhang DE: Role of ISG15 protease UBP43 (USP18) in innate immunity to viral infection. Nat Med 2004; 10:13748.
  • 27
    Hilton L, Moganeradj K, Zhang G, Chen YH, Randall RE, McCauley JW, Goodbourn S: The NPro product of bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits DNA binding by interferon regulatory factor 3 and targets it for proteasomal degradation. J Virol 2006; 80:1172332.
  • 28
    Brackenbury LS, Carr BV, Stamataki Z, Prentice H, Lefevre EA, Howard CJ, Charleston B: Identification of a cell population that produces alpha/beta interferon in vitro and in vivo in response to noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Virol 2005; 79:773844.
  • 29
    Charleston B, Brackenbury LS, Carr BV, Fray MD, Hope JC, Howard CJ, Morrison WI: Alpha/beta and gamma interferons are induced by infection with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in vivo. J Virol 2002; 76:9237.
  • 30
    Charleston B, Fray MD, Baigent S, Carr BV, Morrison WI: Establishment of persistent infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle is associated with a failure to induce type I interferon. J Gen Virol 2001; 82:18937.
  • 31
    Tusher VG, Tibshirani R, Chu G: Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98:511621.
  • 32
    Ptitsyn AA, Weil MM, Thamm DH: Systems biology approach to identification of biomarkers for metastatic progression in cancer. BMC Bioinformatics 2008; 9(Suppl. 9):S8.
  • 33
    Patel S, Lyons-Weiler J: caGEDA: a web application for the integrated analysis of global gene expression patterns in cancer. Appl Bioinformatics 2004; 3:4962.
  • 34
    Smirnova NP, Ptitsyn AA, Austin KJ, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Van Campen H, Han H, Van Olphen AL, Hansen TR: Persistent fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus differentially affects maternal blood cell signal transduction pathways. Physiol Genomics 2009; 36:12939.
  • 35
    Nagasawa T, Tachibana K, Kishimoto T: A novel CXC chemokine PBSF/SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4: their functions in development, hematopoiesis and HIV infection. Semin Immunol 1998; 10:17985.
  • 36
    Nagasawa T, Hirota S, Tachibana K, Takakura N, Nishikawa S, Kitamura Y, Yoshida N, Kikutani H, Kishimoto T: Defects of B-cell lymphopoiesis and bone-marrow myelopoiesis in mice lacking the CXC chemokine PBSF/SDF-1. Nature 1996; 382:6358.
  • 37
    Von Hundelshausen P, Weber C: Platelets as immune cells: bridging inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Circ Res 2007; 100:2740.
  • 38
    Cole TJ, Henson GL, Tremble JM, Colley NV: Birthweight for length: ponderal index, body mass index or Benn index? Ann Hum Biol 1997; 24:28998.
  • 39
    Nuss K, Spiess A, Hilbe M, Sterr K, Reiser M, Matis U: Transient benign osteopetrosis in a calf persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2005; 18:1004.
  • 40
    Ohmann HB: Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. II. Morphological reactions and distribution of viral antigen. Can J Comp Med 1982; 46:3639.
  • 41
    Brownlie J, Hooper LB, Thompson I, Collins ME: Maternal recognition of foetal infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV)--the bovine pestivirus. Clin Diagn Virol 1998; 10:14150.
  • 42
    Done JT, Terlecki S, Richardson C, Harkness JW, Sands JJ, Patterson DS, Sweasey D, Shaw IG, Winkler CE, Duffell SJ: Bovine virus diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus: pathogenicity for the fetal calf following maternal infection. Vet Rec 1980; 106:4739.
  • 43
    Kang DC, Gopalkrishnan RV, Wu Q, Jankowsky E, Pyle AM, Fisher PB: mda-5: an interferon-inducible putative RNA helicase with double-stranded RNA-dependent ATPase activity and melanoma growth-suppressive properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99:63742.
  • 44
    Komuro A, Horvath CM: RNA- and virus-independent inhibition of antiviral signaling by RNA helicase LGP2. J Virol 2006; 80:1233242.
  • 45
    Lu G, Reinert JT, Pitha-Rowe I, Okumura A, Kellum M, Knobeloch KP, Hassel B, Pitha PM: ISG15 enhances the innate antiviral response by inhibition of IRF-3 degradation. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2006; 52:2941.
  • 46
    Zhao C, Denison C, Huibregtse JM, Gygi S, Krug RM: Human ISG15 conjugation targets both IFN-induced and constitutively expressed proteins functioning in diverse cellular pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102:102005.
  • 47
    Shoemaker ML, Smirnova NP, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Austin KJ, Van Olphen A, Clapper JA, Hansen TR: Differential expression of the type I interferon pathway during persistent and transient bovine viral diarrhea virus infection. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2009; 29:2335.
  • 48
    Balkwill F, Taylor-Papadimitriou J: Interferon affects both G1 and S+G2 in cells stimulated from quiescence to growth. Nature 1978; 274:798800.
  • 49
    Chawla-Sarkar M, Lindner DJ, Liu YF, Williams BR, Sen GC, Silverman RH, Borden EC: Apoptosis and interferons: role of interferon-stimulated genes as mediators of apoptosis. Apoptosis 2003; 8:23749.
  • 50
    Kronfeld-Kinar Y, Vilchik S, Hyman T, Leibkowicz F, Salzberg S: Involvement of PKR in the regulation of myogenesis. Cell Growth Differ 1999; 10:20112.
  • 51
    Meurs EF, Galabru J, Barber GN, Katze MG, Hovanessian AG: Tumor suppressor function of the interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90:2326.
  • 52
    Subramaniam PS, Cruz PE, Hobeika AC, Johnson HM: Type I interferon induction of the Cdk-inhibitor p21WAF1 is accompanied by ordered G1 arrest, differentiation and apoptosis of the Daudi B-cell line. Oncogene 1998; 16:188590.
  • 53
    Thomis DC, Samuel CE: Mechanism of interferon action: autoregulation of RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2 alpha protein kinase (PKR) expression in transfected mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89:1083741.
  • 54
    Brewoo JN, Haase CJ, Sharp P, Schultz RD: Leukocyte profile of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2007; 115:36974.
  • 55
    Glew EJ, Howard CJ: Antigen-presenting cells from calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus, a member of the Flaviviridae, are not compromised in their ability to present viral antigen. J Gen Virol 2001; 82:167785.
  • 56
    Dubovi EJ: Impact of bovine viral diarrhea virus on reproductive performance in cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1994; 10:50314.
  • 57
    Moerman A, Straver PJ, De Jong MC, Quak J, Baanvinger T, Van Oirschot JT: Clinical consequences of a bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection in a dairy herd: a longitudinal study. Vet Q 1994; 16:1159.
  • 58
    Valle PS, Skjerve E, Martin SW, Larssen RB, Osteras O, Nyberg O: Ten years of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control in Norway: a cost-benefit analysis. Prev Vet Med 2005; 72:189207.
  • 59
    Ridpath JF: BVDV genotypes and biotypes: practical implications for diagnosis and control. Biologicals 2003; 31:12731.
  • 60
    Graham D, Houe H, Brownlie J, Valle PS: Panel debate on “BVDV control in Europe in the future”. Prev Vet Med 2005; 72:1219.
  • 61
    Collen T, Morrison WI: CD4(+) T-cell responses to bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle. Virus Res 2000; 67:6780.
  • 62
    Muller-Doblies D, Arquint A, Schaller P, Heegaard PM, Hilbe M, Albini S, Abril C, Tobler K, Ehrensperger F, Peterhans E, Ackermann M, Metzler A: Innate immune responses of calves during transient infection with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2004; 11:30212.
  • 63
    Piccinini R, Luzzago C, Frigerio M, Dapra V, Liandris E, Zecconi A: Comparison of blood non-specific immune parameters in Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) persistently infected and in immune heifers. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 2006; 53:627.
  • 64
    Ohmann HB, Jensen MH, Sorensen KJ, Dalsgaard K: Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. I. Virological and serological studies. Can J Comp Med 1982; 46:35762.
  • 65
    Stokstad M, Niskanen R, Lindberg A, Thoren P, Belak S, Alenius S, Loken T: Experimental infection of cows with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in early pregnancy - findings in serum and foetal fluids. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 2003; 50:4249.
  • 66
    Swasdipan S, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Phillips N, Kirkland PD, McGowan MR: Rapid transplacental infection with bovine pestivirus following intranasal inoculation of ewes in early pregnancy. Vet Pathol 2001; 38:27580.
  • 67
    Swasdipan S, McGowan M, Phillips N, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H: Pathogenesis of transplacental virus infection: pestivirus replication in the placenta and fetus following respiratory infection. Microb Pathog 2002; 32:4960.
  • 68
    Iwase S, Furukawa Y, Kikuchi J, Nagai M, Terui Y, Nakamura M, Yamada H: Modulation of E2F activity is linked to interferon-induced growth suppression of hematopoietic cells. J Biol Chem 1997; 272:1240614.