SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Brookmeyer R, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Lutalo T, Li X, vanCott T, Quinn TC: Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda. Lancet 2001; 357:11491153.
  • 2
    Jespers V, Harandi AM, Hinkula J, Medaglini D, Grand RL, Stahl-Hennig C, Bogers W, Habib RE, Wegmann F, Fraser C, Cranage M, Shattock RJ, Spetz A-L: Assessment of mucosal immunity to HIV-1. Expert Rev Vaccines 2010; 9:381394.
  • 3
    Coombs RW, Reichelderfer PS, Landay AL: Recent observations on HIV type-1 infection in the genital tract of men and women. AIDS 2003; 17:455480.
  • 4
    Reichelderfer PS, Coombs RW, Wright DJ, Cohn J, Burns DN, Cu-Uvin S, Baron PA, Coheng MH, Landay AL, Beckner SK, Lewis SR, Kovacs AA: Effect of menstrual cycle on HIV-1 levels in the peripheral blood and genital tract. WHS 001 Study Team. AIDS 2000; 14:21012107.
  • 5
    Villanueva JM, Ellerbrock TV, Lennox JL, Bush TJ, Wright TC, Pratt-Palmore M, Evans-Strickfaden T, Conley LJ, Schnell C, Hart CE: The menstrual cycle does not affect human immunodeficiency virus type 1 levels in vaginal secretions. J Infect Dis 2002; 185:170.
  • 6
    Goulston C, McFarland W, Katzenstein D: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA shedding in the female genital tract. J Infect Dis 1998; 177:1100.
  • 7
    Mostad SB, Jackson S, Overbaugh J, Reilly M, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Nyange P, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK: Cervical and vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells throughout the menstrual cycle. J Infect Dis 1998; 178:983.
  • 8
    Wira CR, Fahey JV: A new strategy to understand how HIV infects women: identification of a window of vulnerability during the menstrual cycle. AIDS 2008; 22:19091917.
  • 9
    Givan AL, White HD, Stern JE, Colby E, Gosselin EJ, Guyre PM, Wira CR: Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes in the human female reproductive tract: comparison of fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, and vagina. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997; 38:350359.
  • 10
    Smith JM, Wira CR, Fanger MW, Shen L: Human fallopian tube neutrophils–a distinct phenotype from blood neutrophils. Am J Reprod Immunol 2006; 56:218229.
  • 11
    Piguet V, Steinman RM: The interaction of HIV with dendritic cells: outcomes and pathways. Trends Immunol 2007; 28:503510.
  • 12
    Keller MJ, Guzman E, Hazrati E, Kasowitz A, Cheshenko N, Wallenstein S, Cole AL, Cole AM, Profy AT, Wira CR, Hogarty K, Herold BC: PRO 2000 elicits a decline in genital tract immune mediators without compromising intrinsic antimicrobial activity. AIDS 2007; 21:467476.
  • 13
    Fahey JV, Wright JA, Shen L, Smith JM, Ghosh M, Rossoll RM, Wira CR: Estradiol selectively regulates innate immune function by polarized human uterine epithelial cells in culture. Mucosal Immunol 2008; 1:317325.
  • 14
    Gray RH, Li X, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Brahmbhatt H, Wabwire-Mangen F, Nalugoda F, Kiddugavu M, Sewankambo N, Quinn TC, Reynolds SJ, Wawer MJ: Increased risk of incident HIV during pregnancy in Rakai, Uganda: a prospective study. Lancet 2005; 366:11821188.
  • 15
    Morrison CS, Wang J, Van Der Pol B, Padian N, Salata RA, Richardson BA: Pregnancy and the risk of HIV-1 acquisition among women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. AIDS 2007; 21:10271034.
  • 16
    Reid SE, Dai JY, Wang J, Sichalwe BN, Akpomiemie G, Cowan FM, Delany-Moretlwe S, Baeten JM, Hughes JP, Wald A, Celum C: Pregnancy, contraceptive use, and HIV acquisition in HPTN 039: relevance for HIV prevention trials among African women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53:606613.
  • 17
    Helmig R, Uldbjerg N, Ohlsson K: Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in the cervical mucus and in the fetal membranes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1995; 59:95101.
  • 18
    Kutteh WH, Franklin RD: Quantification of immunoglobulins and cytokines in human cervical mucus during each trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 184:865874.
  • 19
    Donders GG, Vereecken A, Bosmans E, Spitz B: Vaginal cytokines in normal pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:14331438.
  • 20
    Prakash M, Kapembwa MS, Gotch F, Patterson S: Oral contraceptive use induces upregulation of the CCR5 chemokine receptor on CD4+ T cells in the cervical epithelium of healthy women. J Reprod Immunol 2002; 54:117131.
  • 21
    Baeten JM, Lavreys L, Overbaugh J: The influence of hormonal contraceptive use on HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45:360369.
  • 22
    Stringer E, Antonsen E: Hormonal contraception and HIV disease progression. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47:945951.
  • 23
    Morrison CS, Chen P-L, Kwok C, Richardson BA, Chipato T, Mugerwa R, Byamugisha J, Padian N, Celentano DD, Salata RA: Hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition: reanalysis using marginal structural modeling. AIDS 2010; 24:17781781.
  • 24
    Curtis KM, Nanda K, Kapp N: Safety of hormonal and intrauterine methods of contraception for women with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review. AIDS 2009; 23(Suppl 1):S55S67.
  • 25
    Peipert JF, Lapane KL, Allsworth JE, Redding CA, Blume JD, Stein MD: Bacterial vaginosis, race, and sexually transmitted infections: does race modify the association? Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35:363367.
  • 26
    Wang C, Song W, Lobashevsky E, Wilson CM, Douglas SD, Mytilineos J, Schoenbaum EE, Tang J, Kaslow RA: Cytokine and chemokine gene polymorphisms among ethnically diverse North Americans with HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 35:446454.
  • 27
    Tian C, Gregersen PK, Seldin MF: Accounting for ancestry: population substructure and genome-wide association studies. Hum Mol Genet 2008; 17:143150.
  • 28
    LeGoff J, Weiss HA, Gresenguet G , Nzambi K, Frost E, Hayes RJ, Mabey DCW, Malkin J-E, Mayaud P, Belec L: Cervicovaginal HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding during genital ulcer disease episodes. AIDS 2007; 21:15691578.
  • 29
    Rebbapragada A, Wachihi C, Pettengell C , Sunderji S, Huibner S, Jaoko W, Ball B, Fowke K, Mazzulli T, Plummer FA, Kaul R: Negative mucosal synergy between Herpes simplex type 2 and HIV in the female genital tract. AIDS 2007; 21:589598.
  • 30
    Celum C, Wald A, Hughes J, Sanchez J, Reid S, Delany-Moretlwe S, Cowan F, Casapia M, Ortiz A, Fuchs J, Buchbinder S, Koblin B, Zwerski S, Rose S, Wang J, Corey L, Team HP: Effect of aciclovir on HIV-1 acquisition in herpes simplex virus 2 seropositive women and men who have sex with men: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 371:21092119.
  • 31
    Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L: Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med 2010; 362:427439.
  • 32
    Fox-Canale AM, Hope TJ, Martinson J, Lurain JR, Rademaker AW, Bremer JW, Landay A, Spear GT, Lurain NS: Human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 co-infection in human cervical tissue. Virology 2007; 369:5568.
  • 33
    Ghys PD, Fransen K, Diallo MO, Ettiegne-Traore V, Coulibaly I-M, Yeboue KM, Kalish ML, Maurice C, Whitaker JP, Greenberg AE, Laga M: The associations between cervicovaginal HIV shedding, sexually transmitted diseases and immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. AIDS 1997; 11:F85F93.
  • 34
    McClelland RSa, Wang CCa, Mandaliya Kb, Overbaugh Jc, Reiner MTd, Panteleeff DDc, Lavreys Le, Ndinya-Achola Jf, Bwayo JJf, Kreiss JKae: Treatment of cervicitis is associated with decreased cervical shedding of HIV-1. AIDS 2001; 15:105110.
  • 35
    Mostad SB, Overbaugh J, DeVange DM , Welch MJ, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Nyange P, Martin JHL, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK: Hormonal contraception, vitamin A deficiency, and other risk factors for shedding of HIV-1 infected cells from the cervix and vagina. Lancet 1997; 350:922927.
  • 36
    Wang CC, McClelland RS, Reilly M, Overbaugh J, Emery SR, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss JK: The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:10171022.
  • 37
    Laga M, Manoka A, Kivuvu M, Malele B, Tuliza M, Nzila N, Goeman J, Behets F, Batter V, Alary M: Non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases as risk factors for HIV-1 transmission in women: results from a cohort study. AIDS 1993; 7:95102.
  • 38
    Anderson BL, Wang C-C, DeLong AK , Liu T, Kojic EM, Kurpewski J, Ingersoll J, Mayer K, Caliendo AM, Cu-Uvin S: Genital tract leukocytes and shedding of genital HIV type 1 RNA. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47:12161221.
  • 39
    Ding J, Rapista A, Teleshova N, Mosoyan G, Jarvis GA, Klotman ME, Chang TL: Neisseria gonorrhoeae enhances HIV-1 infection of primary resting CD4+ T cells through TLR2 activation. J Immunol 2010; 184:28142824.
  • 40
    Zhang J, Li G, Bafica A, Pantelic M, Zhang P, Broxmeyer H, Liu Y, Wetzler L, He JJ, Chen T: Neisseria gonorrhoeae enhances infection of dendritic cells by HIV type 1. J Immunol 2005; 174:79958002.
  • 41
    Theiler RN, Farr SL, Karon JM, Paramsothy P, Viscidi R, Duerr A, Cu-Uvin S, Sobel J, Shah K, Klein RS, Jamieson DJ: High-risk human papillomavirus reactivation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: risk factors for cervical viral shedding. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115:11501158.
  • 42
    Koshiol JE, Schroeder JC, Jamieson DJ, Marshall SW, Duerr A, Heilig CM, Shah KV, Klein RS, Cu-Uvin S, Schuman P, Celentano D, Smith JS: Time to clearance of human papillomavirus infection by type and human immunodeficiency virus serostatus. Int J Cancer 2006; 119:16231629.
  • 43
    Cu-Uvin S, Hogan JW, Caliendo AM, Harwell J, Mayer KH, Carpenter CC: Association between bacterial vaginosis and expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in the female genital tract. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33:894896.
  • 44
    Spinillo A, Debiaggi M, Zara F, Maserati R, Polatti F, De Santolo A: Factors associated with nucleic acids related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cervico-vaginal secretions. BJOG 2001; 108:634641.
  • 45
    Coleman JS, Hitti J, Bukusi EA, Mwachari C, Muliro A, Nguti R, Gausman R, Jensen S, Patton D, Lockhart D, Coombs R, Cohen CR: Infectious correlates of HIV-1 shedding in the female upper and lower genital tracts. AIDS 2007; 21:755759.
  • 46
    Atashili J, Poole C, Ndumbe PM, Adimora AA, Smith JS: Bacterial vaginosis and HIV acquisition: a meta-analysis of published studies. AIDS 2008; 22:14931501.
  • 47
    McClelland RS, Lavreys L, Hassan WM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM: Vaginal washing and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition among African women: a 10-year prospective study. AIDS 2006; 20:269273.
  • 48
    Clark RA, Theall KP, Amedee AM, Kissinger PJ: Frequent douching and clinical outcomes among HIV-infected women. Sex Transm Dis 2007; 34:985990.
  • 49
    Kaushic C, Ferreira VH, Kafka JK, Nazli A: HIV infection in the female genital tract: discrete influence of the local mucosal microenvironment. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63:566575.
  • 50
    Patel S, Hazrati E, Cheshenko N, Galen B, Yang H, Guzman E, Wang R, Herold Betsy C, Keller Marla J: Seminal plasma reduces the effectiveness of topical polyanionic microbicides. J Infect Dis 2007; 196:13941402.
  • 51
    Keller MJ, Mesquita PMM, Torres NM, Cho S, Shust G, Madan RP, Cohen HW, Petrie J, Ford T, Soto-Torres L, Profy AT, Herold BC: Postcoital bioavailability and antiviral activity of 0.5% PRO 2000 Gel: implications for future microbicide clinical trials. PLoS ONE 2010; 5:e8781.
  • 52
    Nazli A, Chan O, Dobson-Belaire WN, Ouellet M, Tremblay MJ, Gray-Owen SD, Arsenault AL, Kaushic C: Exposure to HIV-1 directly impairs mucosal epithelial barrier integrity allowing microbial translocation. PLoS Pathog 2010; 6:e1000852.
  • 53
    Cu-Uvin S, Caliendo AM, Reinert S, Chang A, Juliano-Remollino C, Flanigan TP, Mayer KH, Carpenter CC: Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA. AIDS 2000; 14:415421.
  • 54
    Cu-Uvin S, Snyder B, Harwell JI, Hogan J, Chibwesha C, Hanley D, Ingersoll J, Kurpewski J, Mayer KH, Caliendo AM: Association between paired plasma and cervicovaginal lavage fluid HIV-1 RNA levels during 36 months. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 42:584587.
  • 55
    Cu-Uvin S, DeLong AK, Venkatesh KK, Hogan JW, Ingersoll J, Kurpewski J, De Pasquale MP, D’Aquila R, Caliendo AM: Genital tract HIV-1 RNA shedding among women with below detectable plasma viral load. AIDS 2010; 24:24892497.
  • 56
    Andreoletti L, Skrabal K, Perrin V, Chomont N, Saragosti S, Gresenguet G, Moret H, Jacques J, Longo JdD, Matta M, Mammano F, Belec L: Genetic and phenotypic features of blood and genital viral populations of clinically asymptomatic and antiretroviral-treatment-naive clade a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women. J Clin Microbiol 2007; 45:18381842.
  • 57
    Dumond JB, Yeh RF, Patterson KB, Corbett AH, Jung BH, Rezk NL, Bridges AS, Stewart PW, Cohen MS, Kashuba ADM: Antiretroviral drug exposure in the female genital tract: implications for oral pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. AIDS 2007; 21:18991907.
  • 58
    Min SS, Corbett AH, Rezk N, Cu-Uvin S, Fiscus SA, Petch L, Cohen MS, Kashuba ADM: Protease inhibitor and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor concentrations in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 37:15771580.
  • 59
    Kwara A, DeLong AK, Rezk N, Hogan J, Burtwell H, Chapman S, Moreira CC, Kurpewski J, Ingersoll J, Caliendo AM, Kashuba A, Cu-Uvin S: Antiretroviral drug concentrations and HIV RNA in the genital tract of HIV-infected women receiving long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46:719725.
  • 60
    Goulston C, Stevens E, Gallo D, Mullins JI, Hanson CV, Katzenstein D: Human immunodeficiency virus in plasma and genital secretions during the menstrual cycle. J Infect Dis 1996; 174:858861.
  • 61
    Overbaugh J, Anderson RJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK: Distinct but related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant populations in genital secretions and blood. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1996; 12:107115.
  • 62
    Shaheen F, Sison AV, McIntosh L, Mukhtar M, Pomerantz RJ: Analysis of HIV-1 in the cervicovaginal secretions and blood of pregnant and nonpregnant women. J Hum Virol 1999; 2:154166.
  • 63
    Kemal KS, Burger H, Mayers D, Anastos K, Foley B, Kitchen C, Huggins P, Schroeder T, Picchio G, Back S, Gao W, Meyer Iii WA, Weiser B: HIV-1 drug resistance in variants from the female genital tract and plasma. J Infect Dis 2007; 195:535545.
  • 64
    Newstein M, Losikoff P, Caliendo A, Ingersoll J, Kurpewski J, Hanley D, Cerezo J, Ramratnam B, Cu-Uvin S: Prevalence and persistence of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations in the female genital tract. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 38:364366.