Citation Loureiro B, Oliveira LJ, Favoreto MG, Hansen PJ. Colony-stimulating factor 2 inhibits induction of apoptosis in the bovine preimplantation embryo. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 65: 578–588
Problem Addition of colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) to culture medium increases post-transfer survival of bovine embryos. Here we provide evidence that one mechanism by which CSF2 affects the embryo is through inhibition of apoptosis.
Method of study In the first experiment, genes and pathways whose expression were regulated by CSF2 were identified by microarray analysis. Embryos were treated with 10 ng/ml CSF2 or vehicle at Day 5 after insemination; morulae were selected for microarray analysis at Day 6. In a second experiment, antiapoptotic effects of CSF2 were determined. Embryos were treated with CSF2 or vehicle at Day 5. On Day 6 (24 h after treatment), morulae were cultured for 15 h at either 42°C (a temperature that induces apoptosis) or 38.5°C (cow body temperature).
Results In the first experiment, a total of 214 genes were differentially regulated and 160 of these could be annotated (67 upregulated genes and 93 downregulated genes). Differentially expressed genes could be placed in 13 biological process ontologies in four functional groups (development and differentiation process, cell communication, apoptosis and cell adhesion). Antiapoptotic effects of CSF2 were confirmed in the second experiment because the magnitude of the increase in TUNEL positive cells caused by heat shock was reduced by CSF2.
Conclusion CSF2 blocks apoptosis in bovine embryos through actions associated with regulation of genes controlling apoptosis.