Long-Term Consequences of Non-Optimal Birth Characteristics
Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011
© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Special Issue: Marcus Wallenberg International Symposium in Comparative Reproductive Immunology, “Immunology at the fetal maternal interface: Basic science and clinical applications”, July 7–8th, 2011, Linköping University, Sweden
Volume 66, Issue Supplement s1, pages 81–87, July 2011
How to Cite
Sydsjö, G. (2011), Long-Term Consequences of Non-Optimal Birth Characteristics. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 66: 81–87. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.01035.x
- Issue published online: 4 JUL 2011
- Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011
- Submitted April 11, 2011; accepted May 6, 2011.
- Birth rate;
- cohort studies;
- preterm infant;
- small-for-gestational-age infant
Citation Sydsjö G. Long-term Consequences of Non-Optimal Birth Characteristics. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66 (Suppl. 1): 81–87
Problem The intrauterine milieu, gestational length as well as size at birth have a profound impact on the individual’s mental, physical health and development both in childhood as well as in adult life.
Method of study This paper reviews the associations between preterm birth and restricted fetal growth with neuro-developmental sequelae, including increased symptoms of psychiatric disorder in childhood and early adulthood. There is also evidence that physical morbidity such as the metabolic syndrome is more common in adult life. In addition, preterm birth and restricted fetal growth have been shown to be related to respiratory disease, infectious disease, and even malignancy. Morbidity, mental and physical as well as personality/intellectual traits hugely impact on family planning and reproductive performance in adults. As restricted fetal growth may alter organ structure and functions, it is likely to also influence subsequent fertility and/or reproductive health.
Results Individuals with non-optimal birth characteristics appears to have a reduction in childbearing and a deviant reproduction pattern compared to controls.
Conclusion Future studies with sophisticated models for measuring the most vulnerable period of birth for children who have a low birth weight or who are at risk for being born preterm are needed to be able to explore the underlying biological mechanisms and also to plan for prevention as well as for interventions during pregnancy.