• 1
    Marsál K, Persson PH, Larsen T, Lilja H, Selbing A, Sultan B: Intrauterine growth curves based on ultrasonically estimated foetal weights. Acta Paediatr 1996; 85:843848.
  • 2
    Centre for Epidemiology, National Board of Health and Welfare: The Swedish Medical Birth Register; A Summary of Content and Quality. Stockholm, Sweden, National Board of Health and Welfare, 2003.
  • 3
    Keller M, Felderhoff-Mueser U, Lagercrantz H, Dammann O, Marlow N, Hüppi P, Buonocore G, Poets C, Simbruner G, Guimaraes H, Mader S, Merialdi M, Saugstad OD: Policy benchmarking report on neonatal health and social policies in 13 European countries. Acta Paediatr 2010; 99:16241629.
  • 4
    Centre for Epidemiology, National Board of Health and Welfare: Statistics – Health and Medical Care, Pregnancies, Deliveries and Newborn Infants, The Swedish Medical Birth Register 1973–2007, Assisted Reproduction, treatment 1991–2006 (Article No.2009-125-5).
  • 5
    O’Connor TG, Heron J, Glover V: Antenatal anxiety predictsn child behavioral/emotional problems independently of postnatal depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002; 41:14701477.
  • 6
    O’Connor TG, Heron J, Golding J, Beveridge M, Glover V: Maternal antenatal anxiety and children’s behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years, report from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and children. Br J Psychiatr 2002; 180:502508.
  • 7
    O’Connor TG, Ben-Shlomo Y, Heron J, Golding J, Adams D, Glover V: Prenatal anxiety predicts individual differences in cortisol in pre-adolescent children. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58:211217.
  • 8
    Lobel M, Cannella DL, Graham JE, DeVincent C, Schneider J, Meyer BA: Pregnancy-specific stress, prenatal health behaviors, and birth outcomes. Health Psychol 2008; 27:604615.
  • 9
    Lobel M, DeVincent CJ, Kaminer A, Meyer BA: The impact of prenatal maternal stress and optimistic disposition on birth outcomes in medically high-risk women. Health Psychol 2000; 19:544553.
  • 10
    Diego MA, Jones NA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, Gonzalez-Garcia A: Maternal psychological distress, prenatal cortisol and fetal weight. Psychosom Med 2006; 68:747753.
  • 11
    Li D, Liu L, Odouli R: Presence of depressive symptoms during early pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study. Hum Reprod 2009; 24:146153.
  • 12
    Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Diego M, Figueiredo B, Schanberg S, Kuhn C: Prenatal cortisol, prematurity and low birthweight. Infant Behav Dev 2006; 29:268275.
  • 13
    Alder J, Fink N, Bitzer J, Hösli I, Holzgreve W: Depression and anxiety during pregnancy: a risk factor for obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcome? A critical review of the literature. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2007; 20:189209.
  • 14
    Lilliecreutz C, Sydsjö G, Josefsson A: Obstetric and perinatal outcome among women with blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy. J Affect Disord 2011; 129:289295.
  • 15
    de Weerth C, van Hees Y, Buitelaar JK: Prenatal maternal cortisol levels and infant behavior during the first 5 months. Early Human Dev 2003; 74:139151.
  • 16
    Lillecreutze C: Blood and injection phobia and anxiety in pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011; 6:3943.
  • 17
    Barker DJP: Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life, 2nd edn. Edinburgh, Scotland, Churchill Livingstone, 1998.
  • 18
    Hodgson ED: Perinatal Programming: Early Life Determinants of Adult Health and Disease. Abingdon, Oxon, Tailor & Francis, 2006.
  • 19
    McMillen IC, Robinson JS: Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev 2005; 85:571633.
  • 20
    Tu YK, West R, Ellison GT, Gilthorpe MS: Why evidence for the fetal origins of adult disease might be a statistical artifact: the “reversal paradox” for the relation between birth weight and blood pressure in later life. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 161:2732.
  • 21
    Doyle LW, Casalaz D: Outcome at 14 years of extremely low birthweight infants: a regional study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2001; 85:159164.
  • 22
    Ericson A, Källén B: Very low birthweight boys at the age of 19. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998; 78:171174.
  • 23
    Hack M: Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2006; 11:127137.
  • 24
    Jacobsson B, Hagberg G: Antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 18:425436.
  • 25
    Yanney M, Marlow N: Paediatric consequences of fetal growth restriction. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2004; 9:411418.
  • 26
    Akre O, Ekbom A, Hsieh CC, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO: Testicular nonseminoma and seminoma in relation to perinatal characteristics. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88:883889.
  • 27
    Bernsen RM, de Jongste JC, Koes BW, Aardoom HA, van der Wouden JC: Perinatal characteristics and obstetric complications as risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema at the age of 6 years. Clin Exp Allergy 2005; 35:11351140.
  • 28
    Mai XM, Gäddlin PO, Nilsson L, Finnström O, Björkstén B, Jenmalm MC, Leijon I: Asthma, lung function and allergy in 12-year-old children with very low birth weight: a prospective study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2003; 14:184192.
  • 29
    Mellemkjaer L, Olsen ML, Sørensen HT, Thulstrup AM, Olsen J, Olsen JH: Birth weight and risk of early-onset breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2003; 14:6164.
  • 30
    Mogren I, Damber L, Tavelin B, Högberg U: Characteristics of pregnancy and birth and malignancy in the offspring. Cancer Causes Control 1999; 10:8594.
  • 31
    Yuan W, Basso O, Sorensen HT, Olsen J: Indicators of fetal growth and infectious disease in childhood – a birth cohort with hospitalization as outcome. Eur J Epidemiol 2001; 17:829834.
  • 32
    Cnattingius S, Hultman CM, Dahl M, Sparén P: Very preterm birth, birth trauma, and the risk of anorexia nervosa among girls. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56:634638.
  • 33
    Gäddlin PO, Finnström O, Hellgren K, Leijon I: Hospital readmissions and morbidity in a fifteen-year follow-up of Very Low Birthweight children in Southeast Sweden. Acta Paediatr 2007; 96:499505.
  • 34
    Gäddlin PO, Finnström O, Sydsjö G, Leijon I: Most very low birth weight subjects do well as adults. Acta Paediatr 2009; 98:15131520.
  • 35
    Vederhus BJ, Markestad T, Eide GE, Graue M, Halvorsen T: Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010; 23:5359.
  • 36
    Mittendorfer-Rutz E, Rasmussen F, Wasserman D: Restricted foetal growth and adverse maternal psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions as risk factors for suicidal behaviour of offspring: a cohort study. Lancet 2004; 364:11351140.
  • 37
    Nilsson E, Stålberg G, Lichtenstein P, Cnattingius S, Olausson PO, Hultman CM: Fetal growth restriction and schizophrenia: a Swedish twin study. Twin Res Hum Genet 2005; 8:402408.
  • 38
    Indredavik MS, Vik T, Heyerdahl S, Kulseng S, Fayers P, Brubakk A-M: Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in adolescents with low birth weight. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2004; 89:445450.
  • 39
    Thompson C, Syddall H, Rodin I, Osmond C, Barker DJ: Birth weight and the risk of depressive disorder in late life. Br J Psychiatr 2001; 179:450455.
  • 40
    Hack M, Youngstrom EA, Cartar L, Schluchter M, Taylor HG, Flannery D, Klein N, Borawski E: Behavioral outcomes and evidence of psychopathology among very low birth weight infants at age 20 years. Pediatrics 2004; 114:932940.
  • 41
    Elgen I, Sommerfelt K, Markestad T: Population based, controlled study of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders in low birthweight children at 11 years of age. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2002; 87:128132.
  • 42
    Gale CR, Martyn CN: Birth weight and later risk of depression in a national birth cohort. Br J Psychiatr 2004; 184:2833.
  • 43
    Bhutta AT, Cleves MA, Casey PH, Cradock MM, Anand KJS: Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm – a meta-analysis. JAMA 2002; 288:728737.
  • 44
    Stjernqvist K, Svenningsen NW: Ten-year follow-up of children born before 29 gestational weeks: health, cognitive development, behaviour and school achievement. Acta Paediatr 1999; 88:557562.
  • 45
    Berle JØ, Mykletun A, Daltveit AK, Rasmussen S, Dahl AA: Outcomes in adulthood for children with foetal growth retardation. A linkage study from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006; 113:501509.
  • 46
    Lou HC, Hansen D, Nordenfoft M, Pryds O, Jensen F, Nim J, Hemmingsen R: Prenatal stressors of human life affect fetal brain development. Dev Med Child Neurol 1994; 36:826832.
  • 47
    Hultman CM, Sparén P, Takei N, Murray RM, Cnattingius S: Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for schizophrenia, affective psychosis, and reactive psychosis of early onset: case-control study. BMJ 1999; 318:421426.
  • 48
    Eaton WW, Mortensen PB, Thomsen PH, Frydenberg M: Obstetric complications and risk for severe psychopathology in childhood. J Autism Dev Disord 2001; 31:279285.
  • 49
    Monfils Gustafsson W, Josefsson A, Ekholm Selling K, Sydsjö G: Preterm birth or foetal growth impairment and psychiatric hospitalization in adolescence and early adulthood in a Swedish population-based birth cohort. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009; 119:5461.
  • 50
    Ekholm K, Carstensen J, Finnström O, Sydsjö G: The probability of giving birth among women who were born preterm or with impaired fetal growth: a Swedish population-based registry study. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 15:161.
  • 51
    Selling KE, Carstensen J, Finnström O, Josefsson A, Sydsjö G: Hospitalizarion in adolescence affects the likelihood of giving brith: a Swedish population-based register study. Acta Paediatr 2009; 98:561566.
  • 52
    Ibanez L, de Zegher F: Puberty after prenatal growth restraint. Horm Res 2006; 65:112115.
  • 53
    Allvin K, Ankarberg-Lindgren C, Fors H, Dahlgren J: Elevated serum levels of estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, and inhibin B in adult males born small for gestational age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93:14641469.
  • 54
    Boonstra VH, Weber RF, de Jong FH, Hokken-Koelega AC: Testis function in prepuberal boys and young men born small for gestational age. Horm Res 2008; 70:357363.
  • 55
    Cicognani A, Alessandroni R, Pasini A, Pirazzoli P, Cassio A, Barbieri E, Cacciari E: Low birth weight for gestational age and subsequent male gonadal function. J Pediatr 2002; 141:376379.
  • 56
    Phillips DI, Handelsman DJ, Eriksson JG, Forsén T, Osmond C, Barker DJ: Prenatal growth and subsequent marital status: longitudinal study. BMJ 2001; 322:771.
  • 57
    Selling KE, Carstensen J, Finnström O, Josefsson A, Sydsjö G: Hospitalizations in adolescence and early adulthood among Swedish men and women born preterm or small for gestational age. Epidemiology 2008; 19:6370.
  • 58
    Hernández MI, Mericq V: Pubertal development in girls born small for gestational age. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2008; 21:201208.
  • 59
    Selling KE, Finnstrom O, Carstensen J, Sydsjö G: Intergenerational effects of preterm birth and impaired fetal growth: a population-based study of Swedish mother-offspring pairs. BJOG 2006; 113:430440.
  • 60
    Swamy GK, Ostbye T, Skjaerven R: Association of preterm birth with long-term survival, reproduction, and next-generation preterm birth. JAMA 2008; 299:14291436.