Expression of TLR 2, TLR 4 and iNOS in Cervical Monocytes of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected Women and Their Role in Host Immune Response
Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011
© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 66, Issue 6, pages 534–543, December 2011
How to Cite
Agrawal, T., Bhengraj, A. R., Vats, V., Salhan, S. and Mittal, A. (2011), Expression of TLR 2, TLR 4 and iNOS in Cervical Monocytes of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected Women and Their Role in Host Immune Response. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 66: 534–543. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.01064.x
- Issue published online: 10 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011
- Submitted April 8, 2011; accepted July 29, 2011.
- Cervical monocytes;
- Chlamydia trachomatis;
- genital infection;
- inducible nitric oxide synthase;
- Toll-like receptors
Citation Agrawal T, Bhengraj AR, Vats V, Salhan S, Mittal A. Expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, TLR 4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cervical monocytes of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women and their role in host immune response. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66: 534–543
Problem To study the innate immune response -TLR2 TLR 4 and iNOS expression in female genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
Method TLR 2, TLR 4, and iNOS expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in C. trachomatis-infected asymptomatic, mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), and fertility disorders (FD) women. Expression of TLR signaling pathway genes was checked in vivo in C. trachomatis-infected cervical monocytes. Further, inos gene expression and nitric oxide release was assessed in vitro in THP-1 cell line upon chlamydial infection.
Results TLR2, TLR4, and iNOS expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in C. trachomatis-positive women with FD, MPC, and asymptomatic women, respectively, than in control. Chlamydial infection significantly upregulates CD86, TLR4, MyD88, IRAK2, nF-κB, IL-1,β and IL-12 genes. Expression of iNOS gene was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) high 12 hrs post-infection.
Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis stimulates innate immune cells by activation of TLR2/TLR 4. Overall data indicate that recognition by TLR4 helps in initiation of immune response while recognition by TLR2 leads to secretion of inflammatory cytokines while iNOS-induced nitric oxide production helps in clearing Chlamydia. These results are first to provide initial insights into how innate immune response operates in human cervical monocytes upon chlamydial infection.