• Interleukin 10;
  • miscarriage;
  • placenta;
  • TNF-receptor 1;
  • TNF-receptor 2;
  • TNFα


The objective was to investigate placental inflammation in chromosomally normal miscarriages in vivo and in vitro.

Method of study

Chorionic villous tissue was collected from missed miscarriages and normal gestation-matched controls and cultured at 6 and 20% O2 concentrations. Tissue was karyotyped. Flowcytometric bead arrays and real-time PCR were carried out for protein and gene expression studies.


The levels of TNFα and IL-10 were significantly (P < 0.005 and P < 0.05) higher, and the levels of TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 were significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) lower in culture conditioned medium of villous explants of miscarriages compared to control group. Villous tissue homogenates from miscarriages contained significantly (P < 0.005) lower levels of TNF-R1. There was a significant O2-dependent increase in the secretion of IL-10 (P < 0.01) and decrease in TNFα/IL-10 ratio (P < 0.005) in the culture medium in both groups.


Increased levels of TNFα and decreased levels of receptors in miscarriage villous tissue confirm an excessive placental inflammation in miscarriage patients.