• Angiogenesis;
  • cytokine;
  • genetic;
  • habitual abortion;
  • hormones;
  • polymorphism;
  • recurrent spontaneous abortions

The relevance of gene polymorphisms in the development of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion is still unclear. Cytokines, angiogenic mediators, and hormones are involved in all stages of reproduction and pregnancy outcome. Impaired production and/or unbalanced ratios of these mediators have been implicated in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Functional polymorphism influence gene activity and therefore can interfere with the expression of mediators. Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the relationship between cytokines, angiogenic mediators, and hormones gene polymorphisms and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. The results of these studies are mostly contradictory, and few significant associations have been identified. Up to present time, the evidence is insufficient to support the evaluation of cytokines, angiogenic mediators, and hormones gene polymorphism in routine workup in all cases of recurrent pregnancy loss, and these tests are not included in any of the major obstetric guidelines.