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Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment Increased Live Birth Rate in a Spanish Cohort of Women with Recurrent Reproductive Failure and Expanded CD56+ Cells



Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Immunology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Calle Doctor Esquerdo 46, 28007 Madrid, Spain.




Natural killer (NK, CD3 CD56+/CD16+) and NKT-like cells (CD3+ CD56+/CD16+) activity is considered among the key factors for reproductive success. In the absence of immunological screening, beneficial effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in preventing recurrent reproductive failure (RRF) have not been reported. Here, we analyse the IVIG influence on pregnancy success in women with RRF and circulating NK or/and NKT-like cells expansion.

Method of study

One hundred fifty-seven women with previous recurrent miscarriage and/or recurrent implantation failure after in vitro fertilization were consecutively studied. Sixty-four patients with CD56+ cell expansion, no apparent underlying disease and who maintained their desire to conceive were selected. Forty of them received IVIG during pregnancy.


Overall, the clinical pregnancy rate for the women under IVIG therapy was 92.5% and the live birth rate was 82.5%. Significantly lower pregnancy and live birth rates (25% and 12.5%, respectively) were observed for the patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and NK/NKT-like cells expansion without IVIG. After three cycles of IVIG, NK cell percentages decreased significantly and these values persisted throughout gestation.


Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for women with RRF and NK or NKT-like cell expansion was a safe and beneficial therapeutic strategy that associated with high clinical pregnancy and live birth rates.