Get access

A Cross-Talk of Decidual Stromal Cells, Trophoblast, and Immune Cells: A Prerequisite for the Success of Pregnancy

Authors

  • Tsvetelina Oreshkova,

    1. Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Roumen Dimitrov,

    1. Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Milena Mourdjeva

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
    Search for more papers by this author

Correspondence

Milena Mourdjeva, Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 73, Tzarigradsko shosse, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

E-mail: milena_mourdjeva@abv.bg

Abstract

Embryo implantation and formation of a functional placenta are complex processes that require a plethora of regulatory mechanisms involving both mother and embryo cells. Recently, an important role in this complicated cells and factors network was assigned to the decidual stromal cells (DSC) and trophoblast cells. Decidualization includes biochemical changes that trigger DSC to produce a number of factors required for the implantation and induction of immunotolerance in maternal immune system. Immunotolerance is achieved by a cascade of strictly controlled events starting with selective homing of immune cells to the feto-maternal site, regulated proliferation, and predominant differentiation into a regulatory type of immune cells. Furthermore, cytotoxic effector functions are reduced owing to the influence of steroid hormones, factors, cytokines, and inhibitory receptors. Altogether the entire immune system of the mother is switched to tolerogenic functional state which is a prerequisite for the successful maintenance of pregnancy.

Ancillary