Pregnancy and Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A Beneficial Association. Possible therapeutic application of embryo-specific Pre-implantation Factor (PIF*)

Authors

  • Michael J. Paidas,

    1. Yale Women and Children's Center for Blood Disorders, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
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  • Jack Annunziato,

    1. Yale Women and Children's Center for Blood Disorders, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
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  • Michael Romano,

    1. Yale Women and Children's Center for Blood Disorders, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
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  • Lola Weiss,

    1. Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cancer Immunotherapy, Hadassah University Hospital Ein Kerem, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
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  • Reuven Or,

    1. Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cancer Immunotherapy, Hadassah University Hospital Ein Kerem, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
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  • Eytan R. Barnea

    Corresponding author
    1. SIEP – Society for the Investigation of Early Pregnancy, Cherry Hill, NJ, USA
    2. BioIncept LLC, Cherry Hill, NJ, USA
    3. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, NJ, USA
    • Yale Women and Children's Center for Blood Disorders, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
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  • PIF* Proprietary: PIF is a patented compound owned by BioIncept, LLC. Dr. Eytan R. Barnea is a (uncompensated) Chief Scientist. Hadassah Hospital – Hebrew University (R.O.) and Yale University (M.J.P.) received an unrestricted grant from BioIncept, LLC.

Correspondence

Eytan R. Barnea, 1697 Lark Lane, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003, USA

Tel. 856.429.2699 Fax 856.429.7414.

E-mail: barnea@earlypregnancy.org

Abstract

A typical autoimmune neuro-inflammatory disease (NID), multiple sclerosis (MS), is more prevalent in women than in men. Majority of patients with MS are of child-bearing age; therefore, occurrence in pregnancy is common. Herein, we review proposed disease mechanisms and suggest therapeutic interventions, focusing on the remarkable pregnancy-induced protection against MS – insofar considered as best, albeit temporary therapy for such harsh NID. Current drugs used for MS therapy in pregnancy are described. Role of non-pregnancy-specific agents considered involved in amelioration of disease is also presented. This review highlights pregnancy-derived neuro-protective agents, proposing that unique pregnancy-induced immune-protective environment is because of the conceptus and its direct action. The essential role of pre-implantation factor (PIF) in pregnancy is delineated. Finally, PIF immune-modulatory effects and efficacy in chronic model of neuro-inflammation to reduce inflammation and paralysis coupled with neural regeneration is presented. Overall, we postulate that this embryo-derived-compound holds great promise to improve MS and possibly neuro-inflammation in general.

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