Type of treatment, prognosis, and estimation of time spent to manage dental trauma in late presentation cases at a dental teaching hospital: a longitudinal and retrospective study


Dr Suhad Al-Jundi, Preventive Dentistry Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, PO Box 810053, Jordan
e-mail: suhadj@just.edu.jo


Abstract –  Traumatic dental injuries are emergencies that must be treated promptly and properly in order to reduce the suffering, costs, and time for patients, parents, and health care providers. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment, long-term prognosis, and number of visits needed to manage cases resulting from complications of late presentation of traumatic dental injuries. The sample consisted of 195 children, all presented with complications of dental trauma at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinics in the Dental Teaching Hospital of Jordan University of Science and Technology in Irbid city, Jordan. Retrospective data relied on trauma forms as well the clinical notes and radiographs in the patients' records. Prospective data was collected by examining patients at recall appointments. The treatment of traumatized teeth in this sample ranged from no active treatment to extraction and prosthetic replacement. It was estimated that the number of visits needed to carry out the planned treatment for these patients ranged between 3 and 17.2 visits according to the type of treatment. Apexification procedure was the most time consuming. Thirty-two per cent of teeth with apexification ended up with root fracture mainly subsequent to another minor trauma episode (in 85%), the rest were reported to be spontaneous fractures. Almost half of the teeth with luxation injuries became necrotic after 3 years. Teeth with avulsion actually kept on deteriorating even at the 36-month follow-up appointment. The long-term prognosis of teeth with middle root fracture was favorable in (80%) of the teeth in the sample, despite the fact that they were splinted late. Luxation injuries led to more necrotic teeth (50%) than uncomplicated crown fractures. Multiple dental trauma episodes (MDTE) were reported in about 30% of the patients in the sample and were responsible for some of the complications noticed in this report. As all cases followed up in this report are late presentation of dental trauma, the findings may emphasize and highlight predictors for healing and favorable long-term prognosis for such injuries. This will help selecting the treatment option that would lead to better outcomes with less expense and less time consumption for dentists and patients alike. The findings of this report also stress the importance of prevention of dental trauma and minimize its complications through proper treatment, educational programs, supervision of children during play, use of mouth guards, and orthodontic treatment of proclined incisors.