Two prospective, randomized studies evaluated everolimus 1.5 vs. 3 mg/day with steroids and low-exposure cyclosporine (CsA) (C2 monitoring) in de novo renal transplant patients. Everolimus dosing was adjusted to maintain a minimum trough level of 3 ng/mL. Study 1 (A2306; n = 237) had no induction therapy; in Study 2 (A2307; n = 256) basiliximab was administered (Days 0 and 4). The primary endpoint was renal function at 6 months. CsA C2 target levels, initially 1200 ng/mL in Study 1 and 600 ng/mL in Study 2, were tapered over time post-transplant. Median creatinine levels in Study 1 were 133 and 132 μmol/L at 6 months in the 1.5 and 3 mg/day groups, respectively, and 130 μmol/L in both groups in Study 2. Biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) occurred in 25.0% and 15.2% of patients in the 1.5 and 3 mg/day groups in Study 1, and 13.7% and 15.1% in Study 2. Incidence of BPAR was significantly higher in patients with an everolimus trough < 3 ng/mL. There were no significant between-group differences in the composite endpoint of BPAR, graft loss or death, nor any significant between-group differences in adverse events in either study. Concentration-controlled everolimus with low-exposure CsA provided effective protection against rejection with good renal function.